The Most Violent Medieval Inventions You Won't Believe Existed Fight Book | Absolute History

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Absolute History

Absolute History

Yıl önce

In 1459, a book was written that contained images so bizarre that even 500 years later their meaning is still shrouded in mystery. It depicts improbable medieval siege engines and machines of war. Figures an extraordinary apparatus and blood-thirsty jewels. Why was this manuscript written, and who could have unlocked its full potential? This book will reveal the secrets of a medieval age far more advanced than future generations could ever imagine.
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Absolute History
Absolute History Yıl önce
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U TUBE I s GAYyYYyYy 27 gün önce
history that’s just starting over again , when 2000 years before this The civilisation was more advanced.
Debby Lou
Debby Lou Aylar önce
It’s interesting how many of these weapons and devices, consciously or not, look like inspiration taken from insects. The whole exoskeleton thing is obvious as well as the insectile protrusions
Gregg Molter
Gregg Molter Aylar önce
John just uól
TheMotoguse Aylar önce
I hate netflix. Thanks for saving me the time.
multiHappyHacker Yıl önce
This is absolutely great stuff, reminds me of when the history channel was actually good.
Craig Price
Craig Price 27 gün önce
I agree 100!!
Jack Grant
Jack Grant Aylar önce
The history channel: here is a castle. Aliens made it.
Doc, Stock, & Barrel
Doc, Stock, & Barrel Aylar önce
@multiHappyHackerchoot 'em elithabet!
Heidenspross Aylar önce
aaah HC's pre-pawnshop era... good old times...
One Puff Man
One Puff Man Yıl önce
What if the Crayfish was rolled down a hill into enemy formations? It seems more likely given that it would acquire a decent speed with it's weight and would slam into battle lines where the bombs would then detonate after punching through and cause extra damage to rear lines. Trying to grab it to stop it would be extremely difficult as you'd get shredded by the blades, wheels and spikes, and would take off the legs of whoever it came barreling into.
Darren Thomas
Darren Thomas 19 gün önce
@Your Conscience Toboggan's are deadly without sharp objects but take no prisoners.
Darren Thomas
Darren Thomas 19 gün önce
The only down side to that is the enemy ends up with your very expensive war weapon. I was thinking hooking (behind) a fast horse and rider and letting the opposing army initiate infantry battle and then sending it into their midst just before sending your own infantry..
Skinflaps Meatslapper
Skinflaps Meatslapper 26 gün önce
@kev3d Since the internal portion was never depicted, it's possible there was a rudimentary impact fuse inside. An ignition source (ember, fuse, lump of charcoal, etc.) on a sliding cart that could move with a little effort to either side, and the grenade would have a corresponding touch hole. If it was suddenly stopped via contact with people or horses or siege engines, the fuse cart would keep going, sliding the ignition source to the touch hole, and there's your explosion right when you needed it. Perhaps instead of being carted back and forth in a hallway like a video game, they were held in positions behind the wall on a ramp until the enemy got close, and then let loose into an enemy formation. Seeing as how they were so short, they could potentially fit through holes in a defensive wall that couldn't be utilized by attackers. Maybe the blades on the front/rear were more for stopping the thing so the impact fuse could be triggered, rather than cutting legs off and whatnot. Though I guess they could serve more than one purpose in that regard. A few things that don't really fit with a roll it down a hill idea is the bi-directional design and the lowrider little wheels. Bi-directional is entirely redundant for a one and done/ram and explode type of weapon, which would suggest that it was meant to be used coming and going, possibly like the video suggested. The wheels don't appear to be useful rolling downhill, they're too small for that and the first little bump would send those blades plowing into the ground and rendering your metal murder explodey cockroach useless. They look to be more suited for street/cobblestone/bridge terrain. Maybe they sent them down a street or bridge tied to a rope, blew up the initial invading wave, allowed the next wave to make their way past, then were pulled back for another attack from behind. Send a bunch in series, act like you're retreating when you run out of them, but really you're pulling them back for another attack from behind. Use horses or counterweights for the retrieval or something. The mention that it could be sized to any dimension desired throws another wrench into the mix...I mean, a small variant might have use in castle defense, but they could only get so big before they'd be useless in a castle. Size them big enough to completely span a hall/road/bridge? Maybe it could be effective, but where would you store the silly thing before or after the attack? I dunno, it's all a guessing game really. Could've just as likely been an attention grabber for people to buy his book or services, we'll probably never know.
TJ G Aylar önce
@pixelletickle But for what?
Daniel L
Daniel L Yıl önce
I love this. It is like discovering that you've been using a tool the wrong way. There was so much more to medieval combat than I ever imagined. And the technical prowess of its engineers is astonishing. I can't help but wonder if men like Talhoffer and Da Vinci were perhaps more widespread than we'd originally thought? I'm glad that interest in this period of time is so high that this much energy is put into rediscovering this very different world.
Cletus Spuckler Stable Jeanius
Cletus Spuckler Stable Jeanius 2 aylar önce
@Michael Hendricks ... Then that would make me the Oracle at Philadelphi.
Michael Hendricks
Michael Hendricks 2 aylar önce
@Cletus Spuckler Stable Jeanius How did Socrates define "wisdom," Jeanius? Do you know the story of him visiting the oracle? LOL You EPITOMIZE that story.
Michael Hendricks
Michael Hendricks 2 aylar önce
@Cletus Spuckler Stable Jeanius I have never laughed so hard or long at a youtube comment than I did reading what you decided to call yourself. "Jeanius" LOLLLLLLLLL!!!! You don't even understand basic reasoning! LOL! I can't stop... I can't breathe... omg... THANK YOU, I haven't laughed that hard in months.
Michael Hendricks
Michael Hendricks 2 aylar önce
@Cletus Spuckler Stable Jeanius Smart people make mistakes. Stupid people don't realize they've made mistakes. You didn't even understand what I said.
Michael Hendricks
Michael Hendricks 2 aylar önce
@Cletus Spuckler Stable Jeanius HAHAHAHAHAHAHAHAHA! Thank you! HAHAHAHAHA!
Attempt Madeツ
Attempt Madeツ Yıl önce
Absolutely incredible! The history channel had me believing that it was impossible to accurately depict history in an entertaining way.
Michael Hendricks
Michael Hendricks 4 aylar önce
And this channel, which literally contradicts themselves in their own videos, fixed that for you?
Badlaama Urukehu
Badlaama Urukehu Yıl önce
This is nothing new.
Arcadia Yıl önce
😂 "impossible"
rareswag Yıl önce
I just want to applaud these dudes for their very real fighting (and possibly to the, actual, death), for science! 🤣 homeboy definitely got a concussion from that pommel blow... this show's insane, I can't believe they did that. I did notice the arrows fired earlier didn't have true tips, but still, these guys got balls, or just crazy, walking right into arrows fired at them from an 80 lb pull bow! 😂
Skinflaps Meatslapper
Skinflaps Meatslapper 26 gün önce
In most of the scenes they're using rubber head arrows, but at 33:25 you can see one of the arrows managed to penetrate the bell with someone inside. That was either very well staged with a real arrow or the guy in the bell probably pissed himself trying to scream cease fire.
Lerssoun Aylar önce
I noticed that they didnt use anykind of arming cap under the helm and that would definetly increase the amount of force transferred straight to the head.
John DoDo Doe
John DoDo Doe Aylar önce
Some scenes apparently had dummies in the suits.
C.E.T Gale
C.E.T Gale Aylar önce
@Nickolas Phillips Thats spring steel for you, the only steel real swords are made from.... Stainless is much harder but will break. Thats why SS swords are usually just replicas to put on a wall....
Psycho Sweetheart
Psycho Sweetheart 2 aylar önce
The blunted arrow tips were probably for liability reasons that the production company's insurance stipulated (these dudes seem like they would absolutely go for full 100% authenticity if given the chance 🤣)
Josh Rakestraw
Josh Rakestraw Yıl önce
I really need this guy's enthusiasm and excitement at 22:00, rushing over there to see that obliterated plank. That's the vibe I be needing right now in life. I mean he was SOO excited he couldn't wait to get over there and tell us all about it! I bet he is super fun guy to hangout with 😂
Jack Smith
Jack Smith Aylar önce
I can't stand him
timagamer Aylar önce
It's Mike Loades, he's always like that :) Believe it or not, he's about 70 at the time this video was recorded!
Raisin Bran Cereal
Raisin Bran Cereal 2 aylar önce
There really is something so joyous about listening to people talk about their passions
everything will be ok
everything will be ok Yıl önce
This was super entertaining. Some of the re-enactments felt pretty risky... I felt bad for the guy who took the multiple pommel strikes to the dome..
scrappy doo
scrappy doo Aylar önce
Cotton wool culture
scrappy doo
scrappy doo Aylar önce
@Ned K no. No he didn't
Kevin Brislawn
Kevin Brislawn Aylar önce
The poor schlub probably had to sue due to primitive methods on the set 😃
Otto Von Bismarck
Otto Von Bismarck Aylar önce
He looked upset to me. He sounded like he was describing a head injury and the host was just this is how we train 🌞
KomaruKirinashi Aylar önce
The guy they brought in, John Clements, is widely known in historical European martial arts circles to be... shall we say "less than concerned" with the safety of those around him and those he works with.
Nature loving Froggy
Nature loving Froggy Yıl önce
I wish this type of content was taught when I was at school because I would have been so much more interested in learning! I am going to get my kids to watch this as well! Very interesting, informative and engaging, have subscribed to your channel. Thank you for teaching an old dog new information 😂
Jason Ranck
Jason Ranck Yıl önce
Doctor Hughes is an international treasure. She's forgotten more about history than most of us will EVER know.
William Fairfax Mason Prescott III
William Fairfax Mason Prescott III Yıl önce
Amazing documentary. What if Toalhoffa was just documenting fights he witnessed and was an engineer for medieval siege weapons?
John DoDo Doe
John DoDo Doe Aylar önce
He was officially a master of the duels, but probably had some influence on weapon purchasing by his lord.
Kathryn's World - Wildfire Tracking
Kathryn's World - Wildfire Tracking Yıl önce
41:21 - "Knock him senseless." Makes a lot of sense - especially considering the idea wasn't generally to _kill_ a knight. Just to take him hostage for the huge ransom. Knights kept using straight swords (instead of tapered) for a very long time...because they _didn't_ want to penetrate each other's armor, and kill each other. If they had to kill - they switched to the mace. Edit: (Also, pause it at 44:29 - "That peasant's *** ing crazy man! ) :D
Ted Vandergriff
Ted Vandergriff Aylar önce
That guy had a concussion. No way he didn't while claiming to feel sick like that.
Dullahan 3 aylar önce
I've always said that there's no way everyone who lived back then were just sitting around and saying: "Well, this is the Dark Ages." I'm sure they thought they were on the cutting edge of technology and medicine, just as we do now.
Heidenspross Aylar önce
@Volatile well in certain parts of the USA people are already back at that level... *cough* Flint *cough*
Morgan Beck
Morgan Beck Aylar önce
@Whatsit 2ya then you never studied science. Biology, physics and chemistry went through incredible booms in the early 20th century. Not to mention we are innovating and an exponentially increasing rate as time goes on. You’re mistaking “not perfect” with “no better.”
The Real Ostrich
The Real Ostrich Aylar önce
@Whatsit 2ya Have you used a smartphone sir? All that tech that used to be seperate things some of them huge are now in your pocket. That's just one thing that has changed since 1980. Cellphones used to be bricks you could see from space.
Tony Oliver
Tony Oliver Aylar önce
@Gonken88 this is true to a great extent. Imagine being so religious that your every waking breath is governed at least in your mind, by God. Some laws that stand from these times still hold true to my morals. For example, in England in the 14th century two brothers had a sister who was beaten to death by her husband, their brother in law. The two brothers wreaked vengeance on the man and were pardoned before a court because they were upholding the honour of their family by killing their sister's murderer. In those days it was pretty easy to make a living from the heads of others, so long as you went around chopping the heads off of people that they didn't like, you were okay. A very brutal time, but still not as bad as we let on today
Kasina Berry
Kasina Berry Yıl önce
This was so interesting + cool to watch. Baffles me that people think the ancients were so incompetent. Even after all that's been discovered. We're still underestimating our ancestors. Their knowledge, skills, language...everything. It's quite obvious the people of ancient times were quite capable of things we still don't know or understand. *edited for grammar
Christine Cooper
Christine Cooper Aylar önce
We are the same people soy boys then though
1crazypj 3 aylar önce
@Dylan McCallister Relatively recently a papyrus was found from a workgang foreman who transported the stones up the Nile. I forget specifics but should be easy enough to find online?
Anti - Ethnic Cleansing
Anti - Ethnic Cleansing Yıl önce
@33 RPM I have no idea wtf you’re on about here bro. I don’t care either.
33 RPM
33 RPM Yıl önce
@Anti - Ethnic Cleansing Tis a good video I agree... dunno bout the well written bit but - blood thirsty jewels?? Maybe duels? Or the medieval mob not have 2 separate spellings for the shiny rocks and battles?
Anti - Ethnic Cleansing
Anti - Ethnic Cleansing Yıl önce
@Golden Ratio Lmfao. No I don’t work for the department of antiquities. You can choose to not accept this fact if you so choose, but I find that to be sad that you have difficulties accepting reality. This is something that is easy to learn about if you only put in a little time to research it.
mydogbullwinkle Yıl önce
It's fascinating how the designer of that armored wagon arranged its cannon into broadside batteries. I wonder if this had any direct influence on the development of the naval broadside which developed about a century later.
Johnathan Saegal
Johnathan Saegal Yıl önce
Back in the 70s when I was in 7th grade, my Ancient World History class teacher showed us copies of documents and even old letters written/graffiti scrawled on tables... it showed that the people from ancient Greece to the Middle Ages were no different in mentality than people of today. Same off-colored sex jokes to the same concerns for loved ones. One particular bit of carved graffiti in a preserved bar table was "Alexander the Innkeeper's wife is a pig" followed by someone else correcting it by inscribing below, "No, she's a slut". The same type of juvenile scrawling one could find in a bathroom stall or on the wall of a public establishment.
Bikes, Birds, and Bonsai
Bikes, Birds, and Bonsai 3 aylar önce
Wow! That was totally fascinating! Really well put together and delivered... this came up on my feed and I'm so glad I decided to watch it... loved it! Subscribed, of course lol
Jason Alen
Jason Alen Aylar önce
@A PK It being fiction could be a possibility, and yes there wasn't much objectivity, but it is quite astonishing that everything they tested in the video either outright worked or is plausible. And if it is fiction, then what might the story be, if it had one?
A PK 2 aylar önce
Did nobody stop snd think that maybe this "manuscript" is actually a fiction piece or written for entertainment at the time? Everyone acting like it's some sort of special book illustrating everything as factual. There doesn't seem to be much objectivity from the people who've looked at it.
Th. Burggraf
Th. Burggraf Aylar önce
Awesome video, I really had a blast watching this. It doesn't surprise me to see all these great devices, considering that people back then were highly skilled craftsmen and far more inventive than "modern" people think they were.
sol cutta
sol cutta Yıl önce
37m seeing the knights in genuine armour and the flexibility allowed within was astounding.. This documentary would have been a winner amongst its peers with just this alone. Truly one of the best documentaries on medieval warfare. Astonishing. Bravo.
Ted Vandergriff
Ted Vandergriff Aylar önce
That guy was given a concussion for this video
Badlaama Urukehu
Badlaama Urukehu Yıl önce
Look up the YT video of the guy running in acurate full plate armor. It's like an 11 year old video.
Denise Bolton
Denise Bolton Yıl önce
The medieval time was truly a violent time. The weapons they designed to use were amazing. Thank you for showing how they worked. Great show!!!
Bret Simpson
Bret Simpson Aylar önce
Pritty awsum above is correct be sht for women
Erik Silva
Erik Silva 2 aylar önce
Brutalistic!! Was tough living for sure. Must’ve been horrific for women!
tato taytoman
tato taytoman Yıl önce
wasn't this the beginning of the renaissance
Nobody 3 aylar önce
The image depicts Talhoffer breaking the chain. It is meant as an allegory of the book itself. Like a chain, the offensive & defensive capabilities of a castle, an Army or an individual are only as strong as its weakest link. The manuscript is intended to market Talhoffers services as not only a fight master, but as also as a master tactician. That one image transcends language and universally conveys: “Talhoffer can find the weak link and break the chain”
Kevin Baker
Kevin Baker 15 gün önce
The present forgets, that's why understanding history is so important. The chain allegory is obvious when it's realised, as are the devastating fighting techniques. Talhoffer was good at fighting because brain beats Brawn.
Space Lizard
Space Lizard 3 aylar önce are the weak link Talhoffer found. it's about manipulation. most people are highly suggestible. hence why history channels exist on YT.
MinaOmega Yıl önce
This is incredibly interesting. Very cool. Wouldn't it be something to write such a book and our future generation should find it and do the same?
Daffy Daggers
Daffy Daggers Gün önce
So fascinating and informative! The fighters were so versatile and deft in the execution of their moves! A great historical reference! Thank you!
Jade Dragon玉龍
Jade Dragon玉龍 Yıl önce
Wow, pretty neat stuff and what a beautifully designed book! Such colored and artful books were a big deal back then and nary a bit cheap. Sure gives a new light on technologies that Hollywood has missed out on using in films. In an era of hard survival of your governance or town, I'd think people would had to've been creative in their defense strategies. It's entirely possible that he went around to castles and larger towns, offering training and engineering services, the traveling merchant version of a MIL contractor if you will. My main takeaway was that knights were the bad guys, causing much havoc, meaning dragons were the good guys whom kept those maidens safe and only assumedly eaten. :-p
Harry Flashman
Harry Flashman Yıl önce
In Western Martial Arts, Talhoeffer is one of deveral source texts that demonstrate that combat, unarmer and armed was every bit as sophisticated as eastern martial arts. The techniques he shows are all similar to those seen in manuscripts like Fiore, Lichtenauer and thd English treatises.
singergrrl77 Yıl önce
I just want to say how much I appreciate the hard work of all the people who worked on this documentary. t’s really beautiful!! This book really deserves to be highlighted and have its moment to be seen. Thanks for sharing it with us. It’s incredibly constructed drawn and handwritten. The fact that the color drawings are still brilliant is lovely!!
Graham Cowley
Graham Cowley Yıl önce
Just shows, back then you were accountable for your actions and words, you had to stand and defend using your physical skills, compared to keyboard warriors and people who get offended at the slightest moment, great series to watch
Big G
Big G Yıl önce
I don’t like your comment now you must stand trail by combat and god will decide who was in the right. Sounds productive huh
Kingsizedmidget Yıl önce
I get your point, and I agree. However, there was no burden of proof back then, and a noble could hire a warrior in his stead for a duel. Meaning if you are a peasant and a noble wants to see you die, all they have to do is accuse you and let the warrior go to work during the duel...
Chris Helton
Chris Helton Yıl önce
extremely interesting. makes me wonder how much technology existed that we arent aware of in modern times. as well as what technology we have that could be improved upon based on ancient engineering.
Gordon C
Gordon C Aylar önce
Very interesting content, made even more enjoyable with fabrication and demonstration of some of the designs. As for the duels, having a husband and wife fight to the death might be a viable option rather than a costly divorce!
Heather Bishop
Heather Bishop 2 aylar önce
Wow! Love this! I’ve never heard of this book before. So glad I found a documentary different from the rest
Elizabeth Torres
Elizabeth Torres Yıl önce
Awesome video, enjoyed every minute of Talhoeffer's fighting techniques, ideas and inventions.
Achyut Murari
Achyut Murari Yıl önce
Just cannot appreciate the unequivocal efforts put in here to recreate a bizzare designs, dating back in 15th century. Yet the team proved that history needs to be 'tested' and 'understood' not just read. Awesome work !thoroughly enjoyed and engrossed in this 50 minute video. It was worth it.
Arcadia Yıl önce
I didn't even notice this was 50 minutes long
Anti - Ethnic Cleansing
Anti - Ethnic Cleansing Yıl önce
I agree thoroughly with your comment… This video is very captivating! I think you have a typo though… I’m sure you meant “tested,” and not “rested,” right?
Chris Clark
Chris Clark Yıl önce
this was super cool. I had no idea how much artistry and engineering existed back then.
Michael Ryan
Michael Ryan Aylar önce
a rock in the sock thing looked super dangerous even as an experiment. one accidental full blow to the dudes head woulda killed him, im super surprised you engaged in this, as it looked like a couple times she got pretty close to landing a blow. edit: OK damn, realized they prob replaced the rock with something less lethal...but gosh was good stuff!
Mason Maxwell
Mason Maxwell Yıl önce
Gotta say extremely impressed with this, especially the bit on the pommel strike and the real life testing great work
Dominique Charriere
Dominique Charriere 3 aylar önce
Fantastic content! I learnt much through it. Amazing to see the agility of a man in full XV century armour but when you really think about it, 40 kgs distributed on all the body is easier to handle than 40 kgs in the rucksack the Tommies and Poilus were carrying through the no man's land.
loopbackish Aylar önce
Indeed. I lost 40kg in weight over the last 2 years and my physical agility is just the same as before. Yet a 40kg backpack would kill me. It's about distribution. Extra weight in your legs doesn't stress so many parts of your body. Same reason that aircraft carry as much fuel as possible in the wings. It doesn't contribute to stressing the airframe.
Tony Oliver
Tony Oliver Aylar önce
You'd be surprised how many average men could carry 40kg of armour extra. To be able to perform in it for hours on end is another whole box of frogs
Samuel Meier
Samuel Meier 2 aylar önce
@Andrew Osborne so let's compromise on context is king, shall we? ;)
Samuel Meier
Samuel Meier 2 aylar önce
@Andrew Osborne they did in the napoleonic wars, that is true. Attacking with all of your gear in a western trenchwar setting like verdun when charching through the nomansland would be moronic though. Especially because you had places to store that stuff, other than in the napoleonic wars. If you are literally walking in fire lines, your rucksack ist still a hinderance. If you are running at mg fortifications like they did in wwI trench warefare or engage in heavy hand to hand combat like roman legions it would be completely nuts.
Andrew Osborne
Andrew Osborne 2 aylar önce
Napoleonic wars, soldiers were fighting wearing their packs and some wore them assaulting fortifications. The pack may well have been 40-60lbs.
Jim White
Jim White 2 aylar önce
It's called experimental archaeology and it is vital tool in understanding the past. I had the opportunity to be part of a museum that practiced farming and many trades with tools and materials from the past. I learned first hand how smart, well informed, and inventive our forefathers were.
Rijacki Ledum
Rijacki Ledum Yıl önce
Schwabia is in southernish Germany, Stuttgart, Ulm, etc. and is where my great-grandfather is from, Bad Waldsee (and I still have relatives living there). I'm curious how a book written in Schwabisch got to Denmark. The book itself is fascinating, but the story of how it migrated north would be intriguing as well.
Nicolaj Dannemann
Nicolaj Dannemann Yıl önce
@Frank Denmark has never been part of the Holy Roman empire. The Danish kings have had holdings within it, and for those holdings been underlings of the Holy Roman emperor. This is were the disputes of where the German-Danish border should be situated originated.
Blake 81
Blake 81 Yıl önce
Wasn't Schwabia also the home of Gotz "One Day They'll Name The Coolest Manga Character After Me" The Iron Hand? Pretty sure him telling his enemies to "Kiss His Ass(TM)" was called the "Schwabian Salute"
Keizo Xd
Keizo Xd Yıl önce
@Tethryss Suebi were an old germanic Tribe, the name Swabia is actually derived from the tribe of the Suebi.
Keizo Xd
Keizo Xd Yıl önce
@Anti - Ethnic Cleansing Actually the "Vikings" were the biggest Traders at the time period they're Working. Just look at the Old Northern Trade Ports and Cities like Haithabu/ Haddeby. The Image of the always Pillageing and Conquering Nordmann Warrior is actually only the Hollywood presentation of things. Because Vikingr means not only that he is raiding but actually a Sailor& Shipmen and making a Journey on the Seas.
Grant Yıl önce
Spider Seven
Spider Seven Yıl önce
A filmmaker has to incorporate these devices in a movie plot some day! Imagine the action scenes that could be created.
Spider Seven
Spider Seven 2 aylar önce
@James Joy That would be quite a scene!
James Joy
James Joy 2 aylar önce
I was thinking the same thing! Imagining a pitched battle, with arrows and flames and smoke . . . and a pair of those siege-bells relentlessly approaching the castle walls like dark age daleks!
sol cutta
sol cutta Yıl önce
41m that was exhilarating. Watching the guy in red top fight the suited Knight was amazing. I didn't hold much hope for the unsuited guy but using talhoffa(spelt wrong) method really worked. Astounding.
TJ M Yıl önce
To me this book is not a manual. It is a sales brochure. Years ago I worked in the marketing dept of an industrial company. I produced brochures that indicated the services and equipment our company could offer. Not everything in the brochure had always actually been done, nor did it show details. But it was more 'a teaser' to show our expertise, in the hope we could gain a contract. Such brochures were expensive to produce, they were made to impress an give the impression we were a company of substance, that might give credibility to some of our more 'ambitious' ideas. I believe Leonardo DaVinci did much the same with his illustrations.
TheTarrMan Yıl önce
This was really great. It reminds me of the History or Discovery channel before they went full in with reality TV. Please keep it up!
Nick Jackson
Nick Jackson Aylar önce
It was originally on the History or Discovery Channel back in about 2010/11. I recorded it from Sky TV, and it was still on my old STB till a year ago, it had been there for over 10 years. I've watched it a few times over the years. I'm glad it's on TRshow now, I can link it to my younger re-enactor friends who never saw it. Some good presenters with some real credibility too - Dr Bethany Hughes, Mike Loades, Terry Jones are all respected historians/presenters, and John Clements is a renowned HEMA instructor and author. Some of it was filmed at Cosmeston Medieval Village, and Jamie, the armoured guy who carried the "bomb" against the archer, used to be an armourer and weaponsmith there, and the leather siege bell was at Cosmeston too. We used it as part of a medieval re-enactment skirmish back in about 2011. Me and my wife often talked about doing the judicial duel between the woman and the man in the pit. Or the "rock in the sock" fight as we called it 😁
John DoDo Doe
John DoDo Doe Aylar önce
The segment introducing the book sounded too much like an "ancient aliens" segment on those disgraced channels. But I battled through that obstacle to enjoy the rest.
J1111B 2 aylar önce
What an awesome recreation of the crayfish. The skill, patience and creativity bringing together in 3d something from the 2d medieval pages. Thank you sir👏🏻 👏🏻 👏🏻
Jean-Philippe D. Leighton
Jean-Philippe D. Leighton Yıl önce
The Medieval Tank is an interesting one, especially the one depicted in the book. For something like that to function, it would need to be able to transmit the massive pressure caused by the weight into its wheels. I don't think such a carriage would function with just 4 wheels, may may just sink in the ground and get stuck. I wonder if medieval wainwrights were in the business of creating doubled wheel sets, similar to modern semi trucks. Still, I'm not certain how useful these would be on softer grassland, if at all. They'd perhaps work on a dirt / stone path so long as the weather is dry enough. Fortunately, at the time, these wagons would have most likely been used on the Roman Road network, which were likely still usable as a "network" of roads at the time. If we are to assume that post-roman defenses followed a similar pattern to roman forts wherein a main road will run straight through a fort, or very near to, we can imagine that certain skilled engineers at the time may have created vehicles like these to control roads, or help break down fortifications along these roads. There is precedence for skilled war engineers making all sorts of unique contraptions to tackle specific situations such as during sieges.
sam marino
sam marino Yıl önce
@Chronic Awareness like in ww1 that would have greatly limited its effectiveness in offensives being relegated to specific locations my guess is it’s like the early ww1 tanks meant to be a breakthrough weapon but were slow. But when they became mobile gun emplacements when they were deployed.
Chronic Awareness
Chronic Awareness Yıl önce
They could have used rails like a train maybe
Jean-Philippe D. Leighton
Jean-Philippe D. Leighton Yıl önce
It was the Roman Empire that introduced Paved Roads across much of Europe. Some cultures may have had paved roads beforehand, but none did what Romans did before the Romans did, which was build a continental scale paved road system. Most of their contemporaries used packed dirt / stone roads. It wasn't until much later that roads of similar or better quality became common. Truth is, after the Western Roman Empire fell, many of those roads fell into disrepair. There are still a few functional originally built roman roads, however they've been worn so much by horse drawn carriages and other wheeled vehicles that massive grooves exist throughout the paved / stone surface. Britain's first paved road network was Roman, same is true for much of Europe, and gradually they fell into disrepair in the Dark Ages / Byzantine Era.
Civerius Yıl önce
There are people right now doing stuff that will land in a video like this one day.
Chris Griffin
Chris Griffin Yıl önce
Figuring out how to defeat an armored knight while unarmored is pretty epic.
DWlS Aylar önce
I would be interested to know who created these drawings. If Talhofer was a fencing master (fight master is a mistranslation), he will probably have commissioned the pictures from an artist.
Gun Engineering
Gun Engineering 3 aylar önce
Those bells had to have been made of metal. And that beam in the center of them is very telling. With that you can move by rotating the bell and beam around one and other while requiring relatively little strain by those inside. Cushions that size are going to be super heavy. And ingniting them can be very effective too. Igniting a gateway was a technique used to win the battle of Nandorfehervar which took place in present day serbia in 1456. Right at the time of this documentation and not far away from it.
Arlene Grundy
Arlene Grundy 2 aylar önce
Excellent video...well done. However, it always amazes me how people will causally leaf through a 600 yr old book without any gloves on. The oils on your fingers will do more damage to a book than time itself.
Psycho Sweetheart
Psycho Sweetheart 2 aylar önce
@davidj Very likely that the one guy that actually had gloves on had the original (which was also placed on a stand instead of being held) I'd love a copy of it tho
davidj 2 aylar önce
I had the same thoughts. I suspect that they made copies of the original, and used those to leaf through.
Van Hattfield
Van Hattfield 2 aylar önce
Very interesting. I've watched too many of these types of videos to count over the years as I find them very interesting. This is the first one in a long time that exposed some things I had not previously seen. Very nice...
M G Yıl önce
That's interesting because Leonardo da Vinci is credited with the earliest concepts of an armored vehicle, diving suit, the parachute, helicopter, etc, but in 1459 he would have been 7 years old, so clearly not ideas copied from him, perhaps the other way around.
Sanction H
Sanction H Yıl önce
@Tim Sexton Yes, very helpful, thank you. I had never heard the term CV used before, always Resume. Which is fine I think for most people. Those with advanced degrees, many accomplishments, etc, would likely know about and use CV instead.
Tim Sexton
Tim Sexton Yıl önce
​@Sanction H The ire & insults in response to your comment, do little if any, to inspire education. While your comment mentions the word resume, a person in the video mentions the term, CV a bit past 16:40. Résumé is a French word. Loose English translation means, "summary". One or two page chronological document that details the career background, education, and skills of a person (job applicant). CV is Latin for Curriculum Vitae (course of life). It is a formal document, usually of greater comparative page length, and details an exhaustive summary of the academic education and achievements of a person. Used by applicants for roles in academia, scientific research, and medical fields. As a citizen in the US, I was unaware of the term CV until just a few years ago. I get the impression this may be a cultural phenomenon where the term CV, is used more broadly in and around Europe, than the states. Anyways, hope this helps.
Danny THE Dog
Danny THE Dog Yıl önce
There was one thing missing in, let's say 1460s. To have grounds to call out a plagiar between works of large distances and time, if details in them were not a textbook common knowledge stuff. You had no internet. Scholarship and libraries had some information, if you were lucky to get them. But the rest of innovation was up to inventors/engineers, just as today. You always build on the works of your predecessors, even the geniuses. Principle of evolution and entrophy.
Sanction H
Sanction H Yıl önce
@Wicked Lee Stated or implied?
Jessé Marasco
Jessé Marasco Yıl önce
Mainstream Historians do spreads cliché, but real scholars tells otherwise.
Joe Average
Joe Average 3 aylar önce
1:41 As a footnote, Swabian is still spoken today in parts of Southwestern Germany. It has probably changed over the centuries along with standard German, but it's still alive and well, and not ancient.
Pamela Gartner
Pamela Gartner Aylar önce
Sütterlin script was created in 1911 to replace the Kurrent, cursive script of earlier centuries, but learning Sütterlin would help you read the old manuscript
Th. Burggraf
Th. Burggraf Aylar önce
@zelgades Gruß aus Oberbayern. Ich hab Sütterlin gelernt um die Feldpost meines Großvaters zu lesen, die er von der Ostfront geschickt hat. Ging überraschend einfach. 🤙🏻
zelgades 2 aylar önce
I was wondering too when I hear this. I live in the south of germany and yes, I speak swabian. Its a little bit difficult for me to read the writing of the book, but I can a little bit of it. My Oma was still learning how to write the sutterlin writing in the 1940 until 1950
Sean Clouds
Sean Clouds Yıl önce
The enthusiasm of the participants in this is unmatched. Bravo 👏 👏 👏
Sophie W
Sophie W Yıl önce
How can't people get excited about's just great like opening up a box of forgotten treasures .I' m lucky I suppose coming from England because the history of the British Isles is pretty incredible..both for the good & extremely dark ! I have to admit for having a particular interest in the Medieval period ,some incredible innovations taking place around that time ,get Britain was still so steeped in superstition a very interesting period.
Sergio Déus
Sergio Déus Yıl önce
l know this would sound weird but lve been asking myself quite for a long time how the Medieval warfare craftmanship was so limited having in mind all the possibilities, even Leonardo have left us. Someone should made a medieval themed movie using this books designs
Broadside Yıl önce
I guess it was more about what materials were at hand (metal isn't cheap) and it required serious smelting technology to create some of these contraptions. But ultimately, people are lazy and stick to what they know. They'd rather spend time learning how to use what was available to win a battle instead of risking experimental new techniques and inventions
Lewis Smith
Lewis Smith Aylar önce
1st documentary I've watched on your channel. Captivated start to finish Great work, earned a sub 👍
Hugo Cervantes
Hugo Cervantes Yıl önce
Just makes me realize we have so much to learn about our past. It’s incredible , but if they knew about this book why wouldn’t they say something sooner? Could be used in our history books. I would like to know who found the book and how??? Super interesting
Butt Kid
Butt Kid Yıl önce
I'm American, and I really love this channel. British history has always fascinated me.
mrRufffnTumble Yıl önce
It's wild how different we are then people of the past in. The concept of putting your life on the line in combat to resolve a probably relatively simple dispute is unthinkable today for most people. The people had courage that's for certain
Mark Goodman
Mark Goodman Yıl önce
I love how the combatants never forgot to include the cross as their choice for decoration. So much for a forgiving, loving god - the lamb of peace!
Amir Danial
Amir Danial Yıl önce
in the underwater suit scene, those mens who pumped the air initially counted the beat 1, 2, 3, 1, 2, 3.... then after that you can see everybody is pumping at their own pace. haha, maybe they are tired trying to feed so much air and to fight the water pressure. but this documentary is totally great. this is the kind of series that will make me stuck in front of the television after dinner in my school days in the 90's.
Arran J
Arran J 2 aylar önce
I could envision the crayfish being used as an attacking weapon instead, built large like a carriage and rolled down a hill/slope - cutting into an enemies ranks then exploding shrapnel when a delaying fuse reaches the gunpowder.
AJ Lind
AJ Lind Yıl önce
A team should be assembled to reconstruct each of these devices and machines and presented in a documentary series. I would definitely tune in!
Peter Szarow
Peter Szarow Yıl önce
Man, to me this is one heck of an interesting video very cool. The image plates are so vivid in their colors you'd think it was created recently. Or were they??? ha ha. Those fight pro's were really going at it, they must be crazy, geezus.
The Word of God Uncensored
The Word of God Uncensored Yıl önce
That was truly fascinating. It is obvious that people were advanced thousands of years ago. The technology we have today did not just magically appear. It is built on each little step taken by the handful of brilliant minds through out the ages. We are advanced now. But it is nothing compared to what people will have in a 1000 years. But they won't have it if the brilliant minds of today and leading up to the 1000 years then, don't keep advancing a little at a time. Step by step.
Robert Kcisaw
Robert Kcisaw Yıl önce
This is the coolest doc I've watched in years. High quality stuff. I feel bad for the suited knight though!
Jacob Hurst
Jacob Hurst Aylar önce
The crayfish could have been used by men atop a castle wall. As seige ensues, and attackers on the offensive scale the castle walls (with ladders or just free climbing), a couple of men could let this bad boy down the wall on a rope and it's weight combined with sharp edges would cut through and maim anything in its way.
Asbestos Muffins
Asbestos Muffins Yıl önce
if you were a lord or something and a ship full of bronze cannons went down in your harbor, you'd absolutely pay this guy for the secret to go under water, those cannons were worth a king's ransom
aymar stadler
aymar stadler 4 aylar önce
For a follow-up: Willy Ley, The Conquest of the Deep (Chap I, The Submerging Elephant) Thrilling Wonder Stories, June 1938
Jim Yıl önce
Hey Martin, love your work! I watched a video titled “the lost history of earth Full 5 hour documentary by Ewarno” it’s since been removed and wondered if there was anywhere else to find it. Thanks
Marty Winkler
Marty Winkler 3 aylar önce
Love this! Smashing the skull, however, is misleading. Dried bones don't represent the real deal in practice; real bones don't disintegrate like the skull in this video. Still brutal as heck, though
scrappy doo
scrappy doo Aylar önce
@Dan Sweda 🤦
Virgil T. Stone
Virgil T. Stone Aylar önce
@Dan Sweda They wait until it's good and dead, and fossilized, then use some kind of tools to clear the dirt away. It's easy.
Christine Cooper
Christine Cooper Aylar önce
Yep, that skull had been laying around outside for a while and was quite brittle.
Tony Oliver
Tony Oliver Aylar önce
@Dan Sweda bones can survive but their integrity may not. Fresh bone is pink and doesn't shatter into a million pieces. I've known people who have been hit over the head with some horrendous tools and although a fracture was caused, their skill didn't disintegrate
Cow Chop Time
Cow Chop Time Yıl önce
On the bell shaped hting, it looks pretty easy how they got them on and off. The pole in the middle could easily be lifted by two people and allow them to get out. (Assuming it was made of a heavier metal that couldnt just be lifted easily)
Alden Yıl önce
The "bell" device looks to me as if it has a pole sticking down through the middle, which makes me think of "petards"," a dangerous, explosive siege weapon, which was shaped like a bell, that was as dangerous to use as it was to deploy. The mouth of the explosives-filled bell would be placed against a castle wall, with pole rooted in the ground holding it in place. The pole in the "siege bell" may have been the petard's pole. Many people trying to use such weapons were killed in the attempt, hence the expression "hoisted by your own petard."
margery harper
margery harper Yıl önce
Good information, my first thought was that it was simply to avoid boiling oil , poured down from the parapets
Elijah Waggoner
Elijah Waggoner 3 aylar önce
So many books like this! Wish they would do this for a lot more
Whereis TheSerenity
Whereis TheSerenity Yıl önce
Fascinating to someone like myself with limited knowledge of weapons of old. I think the crawfish would work effectively against the men in the leather bell.
The Cocktailian
The Cocktailian Yıl önce
@HomeDistiller I do wonder about the scale. But as exampled, I believe they could be very effective. Being low to the ground the bell would become ineffective. Grenades were common place, building things as once use items also common place. As a last line defensive system, rarely would they ever be employed. The cost in the face of this is miniscule.
HYSTERIA 0161 Yıl önce
@HomeDistiller they didn't ow it up at either end they would've had crudely made grenade like bombs that were replaceable
HomeDistiller Yıl önce
I don't think they interpreted the drawing correctly or its use at all... Why would you waste all the time building a steel contraption just to blow it up? Hogwash.. I think they got the scale all wrong
Anti - Ethnic Cleansing
Anti - Ethnic Cleansing Yıl önce
Great point!
TheRantCastPodCast Archive
TheRantCastPodCast Archive Aylar önce
the stunts in this video seems pretty dangerous. even if they're using blunted weapons at not committing to full power (and using sped up footage and camera angles to make it seem even worse than it is), they risk taking an eye out or someone losing an ear, some teeth or getting a concussion. very interesting stuff especially if you've never heard any of this before!
Dave Johnson
Dave Johnson 3 aylar önce
I love the calm vibe of the thumbnail - “ I’m like gettin’ stabbed bro - LOL! Nicely put together documentary! Anything featuring Mike Loades is worth watching if only for his enthusiasm. Having Terry Jones is an additional bonus. 👍🏻
Ang R
Ang R Aylar önce
Thank you. I am not overly emotional nor tearful. However, some of the recreations and book images did upset me and make me feel tearful. As if some of those things were things I had seen during a 'past life'. If I did, then none of it is something I want to remember. Watching it as historical is quite enough.
Bob brown
Bob brown 2 aylar önce
Totally Amazing show . it really makes you think . We also believe that we are so smart today . I really believe that we have lost an awful amount of science , engineering and common sense . Over the years we build something & think it's amazing . Suddenly we find a book or drawing with the same thing , only it was built 1,000 years ago . As they say , History has a way of repeating itself ..
Kaniver 2 aylar önce
Imagine if this book was written all as a meme. Anyways great content. Enjoyed this episode 😁
Anna Anna
Anna Anna Yıl önce
hitting a long-dead sheep skull is NOT in any way comparable to hitting a living being
MOJO 2112
MOJO 2112 21 gün önce
Wanna bet. SAS Angola
Michael Peterson
Michael Peterson 27 gün önce
Are you volunteering?😅
Doom Slayer
Doom Slayer Aylar önce
I mean . . . You want to be the test dummy? It's just there to give you an idea of how powerful it is.
Ray Misuto
Ray Misuto Aylar önce
It's a rock, they break skulls living or not, it doesn't even have to be the rock that's in motion as you can just drop someone head-first on a rock and it will still break their skull. It was an extremely pointless demonstration.
THE TANK Aylar önce
Nor is a woman who hasn't been training for a month, knowing she is going into a fight for her very life. I'm a martial arts guy and ex-military, I'll tell you right now the weapon being used could easily fracture a human skull and that as they say on FIF is a kill
Lemon Yıl önce
This brings back memories of when i was a kid and I'd watch nova documentation on tv that my grandparents recorded for me
Rick the Swift
Rick the Swift Yıl önce
This is part of the "History" channel's golden age, allowing open-minded and non-biased journalism to course through its ranks.
Arku Yıl önce
These diving suits are mind-blowing! People's ingenuity is truly incredible, no matter when they live.
Palp 22 gün önce
Love the excitement these history buffs exude. They're like kids in a candy shop playing with swords and other weaponry. Very cute
Danny Avery
Danny Avery Aylar önce
Amazing video, thanks so much for taking the time to create & publish it.
Annika Yıl önce
Before I started watching, I thought this would be about Voynich manuscript. But I'm glad to get to know a new strange book from centuries ago. 😊
Lathrop L. d S T
Lathrop L. d S T Yıl önce
Nope, I knew it was not because of the drawing style. Remember the images from the Voynich book were much more Linneo-style as topic,and medieval in appearance. These look more Gothic/early Rennaissance.
Snowy 2 aylar önce
I'm absolutely fascinated by history. Particularly military history. So glad i found this channel. It was quite common in those time's, for knights to loiter at busy crossroads on market day's. So they could attack & kill local peasants. Thus obtaining valuable combat skills. Without the risk of committing a crime against a fellow knight & possibly facing death. The, serfs had very little protection under the law's of the day. So, if u think the upper classes are bad today. Then truly, u don't know ur born. 🤔😂
Bishop Howells
Bishop Howells Yıl önce
Not entirely convinced about the explanation given for the Crayfish. However cannons & mortars were known at the time as was the matchlock mechanism. With two stubby barrels back to back each with a heavy grenade as a reaction mass. Firing one side would send it hurtling across the ground then at the end of its travel the second barrel could fire repeating the bloody carnage. Rockets are also thought to have been a thing since 1380 so a rocket powered Crayfish coming towards your troops would of been a bad day indeed.
Tunguska Lumberjack
Tunguska Lumberjack Aylar önce
I have a copy of Talhoffer’s “Fechtbuch”, but I would love to have the full version with all of the really detailed artwork instead of just the fighting technique illustrations.
Off With The Fairies FOREVER
Off With The Fairies FOREVER Yıl önce
What a book ! Fancy Denmark keeping it safe. Just WOW ! Amazing reconstructions !
Me MyName
Me MyName 3 aylar önce
Talhofer's 1467 edition was reprinted in 1887. The 1459 version has been available online since 2013.
Floridaboi Woody
Floridaboi Woody Yıl önce
Bettany Hughes has such a great voice. I could listen to her narration every day, even if I was not very interested in the video she was in. And I really enjoy every documentary she is in.
STAR🌠B⊚Y Yıl önce
She's kinda hot
Anti - Ethnic Cleansing
Anti - Ethnic Cleansing Yıl önce
@Deacon Gowan Funny how there isn’t any cool inventions videos for where you came from. Hell… Even the wheel was too difficult of a challenge for your peeps. Lmao.
Deacon Gowan
Deacon Gowan Yıl önce
Sounds like crappy British English to me.
arcadian mystic
arcadian mystic 3 aylar önce
on the facts of the swords you ALMOST had it.... MOST swords, ESPECIALLY used in armored/large scale battles were not sharp at all, they were thick SLIGHTLY edged durable swords made for bashing, that is also why they can show in his book a man holding two points at both top, mid and or bottom of the blade and using the hilt/POMMEL as a mace....
bradly bellant
bradly bellant Yıl önce
This production value is actually insane
jhilyard1 2 aylar önce
Imagine that this stuff happens so often you can write a book AND earn a living off that expertise!
Anthony Jackson
Anthony Jackson 2 aylar önce
I very much doubt if the 'tank' would ever have been built and, f so, would have been ineffective. The early breech loading guns, as depicted, were rapidly replaced with muzzle loading because of the issues with 'breech obduration' - that is sealing the joints against the gases escaping around it (and into the crew compartment). The small touchhole of a muzzle loader has much less leakage. Also they were very prone to rupturing around the breech.
trustworthydan Yıl önce
Wow, very well put together and informative.
F3ui Beghardt
F3ui Beghardt Yıl önce
The crawfish array moving back and forward in channels in a castle floor looks like it came right out of a dungeon in a Legend of Zelda game.
One Puff Man
One Puff Man Yıl önce
What if the Crayfish was rolled down a hill into enemy formations? It seems more likely given that it would acquire a decent speed with it's weight and would slam into battle lines where the bombs would then detonate after punching through and cause extra damage to rear lines. Trying to grab it to stop it would be extremely difficult as you'd get shredded by the blades, wheels and spikes, and would take off the legs of whoever it came barreling into.
Carol Gibson-Wilson
Carol Gibson-Wilson Yıl önce
This as very enlightening. Knocked some of my HS lessons out of my head! Thank you.
JamesO2 Yıl önce
@Tony Pearson True. My best guesses would be one of the following: 1. Fuses can be very very long. Its possible that the fuse string would be fed through a small hole that goes behind the wall where the gear operators were. And they would be instructed to light the fuse (by a watchman) in such a way as to time the detonation to line up with the invaders entering the area. 2. It's possible that there may have been some sort of "match strike pad" that created a spark or something in the tracks, so simply moving the device past a certain point would ignite the fuse inside. 3. As you said, its possible they were never actually used as explosive devices in history at all, and that the moving blades were simply designed to cut at the ankles of horses and men invading. Which, I feel, is probably pretty adequate of a defense in and of itself. Besides that, detonating such a complex hand crafted device seems like a huge waste of a skilled blacksmith's time, given that mass production wasn't feasible yet.
Tony Pearson
Tony Pearson Yıl önce
My question is how is the fuse lit? There wasn't a person inside the device and they didn't have remote detonators. So you really can't believe all of this, besides this is how they THINK the things works.
Peter Sieben
Peter Sieben 3 aylar önce
This is the very first time i see more then just one or two pics out of this book .... and the colours are so vivid ... amazing report, thank you.
Hans Johannsen
Hans Johannsen 2 aylar önce
It's used in modern times for instruction of European martial arts
58Kym 2 aylar önce
How accurate to actual history is this book? Was it a book of ‘fantasy’ or was it a record of reality?
Chris Tela
Chris Tela Yıl önce
I seen that crayfish in a dream It was being rolled down a large hill into invading enemies . Used like a unmounted cavalry charge , a couple hundred would be rolled down a hill into charging enemies at the point of no return. The cast iron pots would be filled with all kinds of metals shrapnel and would decimate the frontline while the heavy body and protruding blades meant that the rushing forces would not only be mutilated be shrapnel but also e Shredded on the protruding blades as the crayfish rolled through their main frontal lines. Don't know if it's accurate or not but in the dream I was speaking to a man while watching a battle from a hill. I told the man, we are going to get over run, he said "have faith Delah" then he gave a command in a language I didn't know and I saw great metallic chariots positioned on the crest of the hillock, as if In formation. Then another Comand, and lighted braids were touched inside, the final Comand given the great metallic beasts were heaved past the crest and began their decent into the rushing army of more men and women than I could fathom. Then there was a great thunder as of the sky was torn and in the fire and smoke could be heard great screams and agonizing howls , as the smoke cleared one could see the great chariots competing their task by cleaving and maiming those in their path. Were one to lay prostrate, the gouges on the hubs would ensure no quarter. Not sure what happened after because in seeing the carnage I awoke confused and wrote it off. Now I see these and instantly I am reminded of that dream...which may not have been a dream but more a memory?
Danielle Weterings
Danielle Weterings 2 aylar önce
Wow indeed this is very very interesting...I think it is a memory of a previous soul maybe...Very very interesting makes you wonder
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