The 4 things it takes to be an expert

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Veritasium

Veritasium

2 aylar önce

Which experts have real expertise? This video is sponsored by Brilliant. The first 200 people to sign up via brilliant.org/veritasium get 20% off a yearly subscription.
Thanks to www.chess24.com/ and Chessable for the clip of Magnus.
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Chase, W. G., & Simon, H. A. (1973). Perception in chess. Cognitive psychology, 4(1), 55-81. - ve42.co/chess1
Calderwood, R., Klein, G. A., & Crandall, B. W. (1988). Time pressure, skill, and move quality in chess. The American Journal of Psychology, 481-493. - ve42.co/chess2
Hogarth, R. M., Lejarraga, T., & Soyer, E. (2015). The two settings of kind and wicked learning environments. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 24(5), 379-385. - ve42.co/Hogarth
Ægisdóttir, S., White, M. J., Spengler, P. M., Maugherman, A. S., Anderson, L. A., Cook, R. S., ... & Rush, J. D. (2006). The meta-analysis of clinical judgment project: Fifty-six years of accumulated research on clinical versus statistical prediction. The Counseling Psychologist, 34(3), 341-382. - ve42.co/anderson1
Ericsson, K. A. (2015). Acquisition and maintenance of medical expertise: a perspective from the expert-performance approach with deliberate practice. Academic Medicine, 90(11), 1471-1486. - ve42.co/anderson2
Goldberg, S. B., Rousmaniere, T., Miller, S. D., Whipple, J., Nielsen, S. L., Hoyt, W. T., & Wampold, B. E. (2016). Do psychotherapists improve with time and experience? A longitudinal analysis of outcomes in a clinical setting. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 63(1), 1. - ve42.co/goldberg1
Ericsson, K. A., Krampe, R. T., & Tesch-Römer, C. (1993). The role of deliberate practice in the acquisition of expert performance. Psychological Review, 100(3), 363. - ve42.co/anderson3
Egan, D. E., & Schwartz, B. J. (1979). Chunking in recall of symbolic drawings. Memory & Cognition, 7(2), 149-158. - ve42.co/chunking1
Tetlock, P. E. (2017). Expert political judgment. In Expert Political Judgment. Princeton University Press. - ve42.co/Tetlock
Melton, R. S. (1952). A comparison of clinical and actuarial methods of prediction with an assessment of the relative accuracy of different clinicians. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of Minnesota.
Meehl, E. P. (1954). Clinical versus Statistical Prediction: A Theoretical Analysis and a Review of the Evidence. University of Minnesota Press. - ve42.co/Meehl1954
Kahneman, D. (2011). Thinking, fast and slow. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. - ve42.co/Kahneman
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Special thanks to Patreon supporters: RayJ Johnson, Brian Busbee, Jerome Barakos M.D., Amadeo Bee, Julian Lee, Inconcision, TTST, Balkrishna Heroor, Chris LaClair, Avi Yashchin, John H. Austin, Jr., OnlineBookClub.org, Matthew Gonzalez, Eric Sexton, john kiehl, Diffbot, Gnare, Dave Kircher, Burt Humburg, Blake Byers, Dumky, Evgeny Skvortsov, Meekay, Bill Linder, Paul Peijzel, Josh Hibschman, Timothy O’Brien, Mac Malkawi, Michael Schneider, jim buckmaster, Juan Benet, Ruslan Khroma, Robert Blum, Richard Sundvall, Lee Redden, Vincent, Stephen Wilcox, Marinus Kuivenhoven, Michael Krugman, Cy 'kkm' K'Nelson, Sam Lutfi, Ron Neal
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Written by Derek Muller and Petr Lebedev
Animation by Ivy Tello and Fabio Albertelli
Filmed by Derek Muller and Raquel Nuno
Additional video/photos supplied by Getty Images
Music from Epidemic Sound ( ve42.co/music )
Produced by Derek Muller, Petr Lebedev, and Emily Zhang

YORUMLAR: 11 707
BUDA
BUDA
The pattern recognition became very clear to me when I learned Morse code. The human brain takes 50 milliseconds to process and understand a sound. People regularly send and receive Morse code at 30 words per minute, which puts the dit character and the gap between all characters at 40 milliseconds. So you literally have to process sounds faster than the brain can recognize them. Over time you start to hear whole words in the code rather than individual letters, but you still have to decode call signs character by character. You basically cache the sounds in your brain without processing them, and once the whole set of characters passes, your brain is able to turn it into an idea and add it to the stack of previous ideas while your ears are already caching the next set of characters.
Sameh Ismail
Sameh Ismail
5:00
mage
mage
"Don't get comfortable" is a lesson I'd like to drive home by this statistic: some 70-90% of accidental finger amputations happen at 2 ages, 16 and 60. All the time in between those ages is marked by remarkably safe individuals who go their entire career without a single incident. Before and after those ages is when nearly every finger is removed via
Sen千
Sen千
I think without love and obsession for what you do, those steps can feel unbearable. If you love what you do deeply and are obsessed with it... being uncomfortable is not even that bad. It's like Kobe Bryant tearing his achilles, shooting free throws and walking off the court.. He said that when the game is the most important, you don't even feel the pain. I'm sure he's been in pain and uncomfortable a whole lot in his career but he LOVED the game of basketball too much to even care about the discomfort. He was obsessed.
Fliptopverse
Fliptopverse 19 saatler önce
I studied and played chess for almost 7 years. Also, I already knew what chunking is. It was in our lesson in Cognitive Psychology. But I didn't realized that the reason behind chess players' memory and rapid evaluation were because of chunking. That experiment was really enlightening. Btw, the first position in the experiment was not really that hard since it is pretty common position. But the second one was like, man, I couldn't understand what was happening. It takes time to evaluate it.
voleN
voleN
The beginning section of this where you cover the chess players and discuss chunking reminds me a lot of what I tell people about typing and typists. Those who can type the fastest, don't think in letters when they type, they think in words there fingers just know where to go. Where as slower typers tend to type based on each letter, and have to work their thought process through each letter, then the corresponding key on the keyboard. Just figured I'd drop another analogy or method of describing it for others.
ONAR Occasionally Needs A Restart
ONAR Occasionally Needs A Restart
I recently had a MASSIVE argument with my university because they repeatedly did not provide any feedback to essays or exams. Just a mark and that's it. I backed my perspective with a ton of academic works on education, that I doubt any of them ever read.
zijuiy wttuy
zijuiy wttuy
16:30
-]Na[-NoMaD
-]Na[-NoMaD
The preselection example reminds me of something I went through in high school, our education system is divided in 4 steps (there is more but the rest is irrelevant here)
Clewerton Coelho
Clewerton Coelho 12 saatler önce
I feel really rewarded by all the amazing content of this channel! You make a great service spreading knowledge, very much obliged. ❤️
bipul verma
bipul verma
Expertise has its limitations because they have a very specific perspective built over time- good at doing one and only one thing - physicists, doctors, musician, etc. It is very hard to come out of this single perspective of looking at things. This is another reason why it is necessary to keep challenging oneself to learn new things preferably in a very different domain.
Anatoly
Anatoly
The Four Things are:
Teh Yong Lip
Teh Yong Lip 21 gün önce
I really love the way you compare and contrast the nature of professions from various fields, it's extremely helpful!
IRAN MA
IRAN MA 14 gün önce
As a software developer, I really feel that I get better at solving problems using my intuition, and all the 4 concepts you listed in this video matches my experience perfectly.
James Bradley
James Bradley
“Success seems to be connected with action. Successful people keep moving. They make mistakes, but they don’t quit.”
Tommy Wyderko
Tommy Wyderko
I love this video, the part that hit home for me was when you talked about the idea doing things that are uncomfortable to really cross that threshold of becoming an expert. As a dancer, this resonates, because everything we do feels awkward, strange and even uncomfortable until you get used to it over time. I'm curious what the the threshold is for what i call "productive discomfort". Like you, I also play guitar and mostly the same stuff I've played since high school because it is comfortable. Personally, I like to allocate my discomfort to the activities where I really want to push myself, but I'm curious if there is any science to this idea of "allocating discomfort" that ive made up for myself. Would love a future video exploring that topic. Excellent video tho, I plan to show it to all of my students!
Kyle Harwell
Kyle Harwell
Hi Derek, I am a cognitive psychologist and the final PhD student of K. Anders Ericsson (originator of the deliberate practice research). First of all, I wanted to commend you on providing an excellent, accessible summary of a complex and oft-misrepresented literature! I have given a number of talks on this exact topic and I can definitely learn a thing or two from your presentation style. Second, if anyone is interested in learning more about deliberate practice, expertise, and the myths surrounding them, I encourage you to check out an academic paper I published with a colleague in the online Journal of Expertise (Harwell, K. & Southwick, D. 2021. Beyond 10,000 hours: Addressing misconceptions of the expert performance approach. Journal of Expertise, 4(2) [link omitted, since I don't know if I can post it in TRshow comments]). Also, check out the whole issue, which is dedicated to the legacy of Ericsson's work across several fields of psychology.
Carrie Hooper
Carrie Hooper
Well this video makes me feel a lot better about my career choice this summer. I was in a very comfortable teaching position that had become pretty easy but it was far away from home. I recently gave it up for a job at a more challenging school with a lot more responsibilities expected of me but is right next to my home. I was starting to regret my decision about leaving the easier position but I will remind myself that I am pushing myself to become a better teacher and more of an expert in my field.
mysterious benefactor
mysterious benefactor
I'm a mechanic with 23 years of experience. This video makes a lot of sense to me!
James Crook
James Crook
I've been a programmer now for 3 years. The first two years were difficult. At the start of the third year I fealt like an utterly terrable engineer.
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