Stephen Wolfram on the Tangled History of the Second Law of Thermodynamics

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Gün önce

Stephen reads a recent blog from and then answers questions live from his viewers. Read the blog along with Stephen here:
00:00 Start stream
3:04 The Basic Arc of the Story
7:59 What Is Heat?
50:47 Heat Engines and the Beginnings of Thermodynamics
1:09:44 The Second Law Is Formulated
Originally livestreamed at: / stephen_wolfram
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@12cd5 9 aylar önce
This is great watching you go through the historic development and reading primary resources. I've just learned of geometric algebra and it amazes me how simple yet powerful it is, and somehow it came relatively late in the development in mathematical physics and later computer graphics. I hope you keep doing these. Your energy is next level! Btw I bought your book 20 years ago :)
@Dessoxyn 4 aylar önce
His genuine enthusiasm and enjoyment are the biggest reason I'm steadily moving through his live videos, particularly the Q&As. There are *many* other reasons
@Pappaous 3 aylar önce
Thank you Professor. You bring hope back to Science by digging deep and sharing your honest thoughts. These... Videos are priceless.
@bogslurp3532 9 aylar önce
We are incredibly fortunate to have access to Stephan's lectures - his insights and knowledge are truly invaluable, and I am grateful for the opportunity to learn from such a brilliant mind.
@davaajargalbatsuh 5 aylar önce
@TurboJon 3 aylar önce
Bravo, Stephen. Love the historical background. It's a deep dive into the way natural philosophy/physics was performed at the time and the kind of issues that consumed the thoughts of scientists then. Very interesting and revealing.
@elirothblatt5602 4 aylar önce
What a tour de force! I wish I had this video before college physics -it would’ve helped every equation come to life.
@inthefade 5 aylar önce
Thank you for sharing this. It is something that needs to be documented. I hope your team is also uploading this to TRshow alternatives and backing up your videos somewhere offline for future generations.
@philiprice6961 9 aylar önce
The Victorian era often comes across as boring and stuffy, but the scientific culture was amazingly productive, with guys like Kelvin and especially Maxwell laying the foundations of modern physics. Are we seeing a rebirth of Victorian-style optimism in the tech giants of today? Great lecture BTW. Thank you Stephen! More please, perhaps the history of, oh I don't know, electromagnetism, relativity and quantum mechanics. That should do for a start!
@rustyshimstock8653 8 aylar önce
Many thanks for taking the time and care to put this together and share this. I eagerly look forward to the next installment!
@famistudio 9 aylar önce
There I was, about halfway done reading the post on the website and I was thinking to myself "this would be great as a podcast or something". Thanks for doing this. Amazing research.
@andy1shi 7 aylar önce
39:10 the idea that heat is raleted to the random motion of molecules is an ancient idea, thats why D. Bernoulli said that is well known. In particular D. Bernoulli knows about it from the book De Rerum Natura of Lucretius. This book was the inspiration for the kinetic theory of gases.
@Iophiel 8 aylar önce
Prof. Wolfram, this presentation was incandescent!
@blanck2751 9 aylar önce
Can't wait for the next episode of Storytime with Wolfram😃
@exmodule6323 6 aylar önce
Story time with Wolfy
@mamajojoful 8 aylar önce
Thank you for a fascinating history! I am on the edge of my seat anticipating the second part of the story. Looking forward to Boltzmann ❤
@ai_serf 9 aylar önce
This has to be the greatest lecture I've ever experienced. Thank you Wolfram, you're a gift to the world! Studying can be lonely and with news in the background, I want to end it, with wolfram in the background, I want to build it! I'm itching to make a thermodynamic particle simulator and watch the entropy in action!
@djbabbotstown 8 aylar önce
The sensation I had watching also.
@joegomez5807 7 aylar önce
Nice lecture. I have been trying to get a deeper understanding of thermodynamics as I found there was a lot of hand waving!! Thanks for the history lesion. I makes me feel better that smarter people than me struggled with it.
@Atanu 9 aylar önce
Stephen Wolfram is an extraordinary intellectual, thinker, physicist and mathematician. I stand in awe of this achievements. This video is a testament to that. Thank you, sir. (BTW, he misspoke around 7:30 time stamp when he said, "... heat does not spontaneously flow from a hotter body to a colder one ...")
@muzduz 7 aylar önce
What a lovely discovery of your channel. Am looking forward to seeing more of your presentations.
@pyrokinetikrlz 8 aylar önce
ufff this was great! We give for granted these laws of physics, but they did not come to us without effort!
@davidrowewtl6811 8 aylar önce
What a treat! Time flashed by watching this. Awesome. More more, more! :-)
@moralboundaries1 2 aylar önce
I never knew the victorian scientists used such poetic language in their scientific documents. You could probably use it as inspiration for some pretty cool literature.
@CmdrCorn 6 aylar önce
Wolfram is certainly among the world's most underappreciated genuises. Also I need to upgrade my signature to the level of Carnot lol
@miinyoo 8 aylar önce
Stephen, that was as entertaining as informative. The correlations and how we approach assumptions appear to continue ad hominem.
@user-vi3sz3fg2r Aylar önce
What a brilliant lecturer.
@debnath5110 8 aylar önce
Thank you Sir...very well presented..Thank you again..
@MS-od7je 9 aylar önce
Great history lesson. Thanks 44:15 Dark matter and geometry. Indeed. The river flows in the bed.= the geometry of the earth preceded the water. Water may cut the rocks but only the rocks in the geometry bounds of its flow. You can generate galactic “ morphology “ with creamer in a coffee cup. The spirals are a result of the geometry bounds of the cup. In galaxies probably the “long “ field of the core black hole and its boundary with the antinode of intergalactic “space “.
@Anders01 9 aylar önce
Great topic, I believe Stephen is correct about how entropy is like encrypted information, that it looks like randomness from a macro perspective but could in fact be deterministic (except I think that causality can also come from the future and explain things like strong emergence if there is such a thing). And Leonard Susskind said that entropy is simply hidden information.
@blastolabs6373 9 aylar önce
It only takes a few observations to quickly see that negentropy is the real law of the universe. Life would never have happened if entropy was the law of the universe.
@Anders01 9 aylar önce
@@blastolabs6373 Yes, I think you are correct. The idea that some physicists claim that the Big Bang started with incredibly low entropy that has been increasing ever since might explain the arrow of time, but hardly the increase of complexity, which is very different from just an increase of entropy.
@EdwardBeardsworth Aylar önce
I am curious to know if you are aware of the work of Daniel P Sheehan, Univ of San Diego, who has published books and many papers about Challenges to the 2nd law. He too did a detailed review of the underpinnings of the (many versions of the) 2nd Law...(ISBN 1-4020-3015-0), and has developed a number of experiments demonstrating exceptions. I'd hoped to find him in the bibliography.
@MrScientifictutor 7 aylar önce
Great discussion!
@VladimirRomanovsky-Errdonald 9 aylar önce
Thank you, Stephen Wolfram!
@steveaustin5344 9 aylar önce
I think it's unfortunate this law was ever labeled a "law" because then people get rather intolerant of questioning it. Clearly this "law" is a very useful observation, especially of macro scale systems. Yet we can violate it, as demonstrated several times in papers in the last 2 decades. I feel that when people cling too tightly to a belief they get emotional when you challenge them, which is annoying because I love to discuss ideas, but it's useful to step back and remember that the history of science is an evolution of ideas.
@AdAd-ep7qv 9 aylar önce
2nd law at a macro scale seems perfectly believable but why on earth people want to generalise to molecular scale seems as silly as doing that with Newtonian physics. It's adequate as a model for everyday human scale calculations but belief that Newtonian physics works well at all scales is simply false.
@steveaustin5344 9 aylar önce
Yeah if you consider an extremely rarefied gas I'd be fascinated to see what demons could be mustered. Single molecule diodes sound interesting or some sort of molecular scale ratchet. I'm surprised Maxwell's demon is so often enthusiastically dismissively bundled in with Santa Claus & the Tooth Fairy. It's so easy to think of numerous passive demons which require no energy input. Essentially it's just passive sorting. Difficult to do on a molecular scale. Easy to do on a macro scale, eg one way door or ratchet or diode type mechanism to demonstrate the idea. (Btw, I do sincerely thoroughly enjoy Stephen's presentations. Thank you!)
@steveaustin5344 9 aylar önce
Some weather satellites have infrared sensors designed to have maximum sensitivity at about the same frequency as the peak blackbody energy output of an object at 20 degrees Celsius. I think the voltage on those sensors themselves without the capacitors without power input would be extremely small but non zero. They are similar to a photovoltaic cell but using infrared from heat instead of sunlight. I don't see why you can't extract energy using the photoelectric effect with a photovoltaic cell optimized for absorbing IR at approximately 10um wavelength in a giant box of uniform temperature & pressure gas at 20 degrees Celsius? So ... How is that not violating 2nd law... Maybe I'm wrong but I don't see how. I'm not claiming with certainty any of this violates the holy law, but Im just trying to provide food for thought. You can tell I have my strong doubts that this law holds true on all scales.
@steveaustin5344 9 aylar önce
Professor Jukka Pekola has some fascinating recent physics research on this topic.
@hychap 7 aylar önce
This content is fantastic.. I loved it, thank you.. However, so many more people would love and watch this if you could use a video editor.. and you could put adds on there 8f you did this and nobody would mind them..
@emilywong4601 7 aylar önce
Some of this topic was covered in electronics courses in the 1980s.
@tarkajedi3331 7 aylar önce
I had to watch this twice!!!! Fascinating!!!!!!!
@mst7155 8 aylar önce
Interesting: I m dying to watch and listen to the continuation..... To be honest it's my hundred attempt to understand what the fuss is all about!
@DavoidJohnson 9 aylar önce
This story looks to be inevitably recursive and although my brain prefers things to be sequential, this cannot be with out editing much of the history.
@paracleteadvocacy 2 aylar önce
1:01:06 Engineering hackery of Carnaut’s time compared to today’s neural net development. This one gave me a chuckle !
@831Miranda Aylar önce
Really fun and very enjoyable, and I am a lay person...😂 ❤
@christophergame7977 3 aylar önce
Galileo was referring to one particular aspect of heat, by Prevost called 'free heat'. That aspect is, as Galileo said, 'subtle'. Galileo regarded it as a kind of 'substance'. Today, we call the 'atoms' of that 'substance' by the name 'photons'.
@infiniteinfiniteinfi 8 aylar önce
Is there a playlist with these kind of videos?
@xy4489 9 aylar önce
Primary source material makes this extra captivating.
@giovannisantostasi9615 6 gün önce
Physics should be also taught through its history.
@rg3412 6 aylar önce
So-to-speak as spoken :)
@christophergame7977 7 aylar önce
Stephen is using the word 'heat' in a way partly different from that of thermodynamics. In thermodynamics, heat is energy in transfer by mechanisms other than thermodynamic work or transfer of matter. In thermodynamics, radiation is a mode of transfer of energy as heat. Friction and percussion are modes of conversion of mechanical work into heat. Conduction is another form of transfer of energy as heat. The passage of electricity through a body, either as direct or alternating current, is another mode of transfer of energy as heat.
@EugenethePhilostopher 5 aylar önce
This is the most important question for me at the moment.
@MadCowMusic 6 aylar önce
I couldn't understand much of this until I kicked it into 1.75x speed then I really started click in and vibe with it.
@MadCowMusic 6 aylar önce
I plan to listen again at normal speed to fall asleep :)
@EugenethePhilostopher 5 aylar önce
01:10:42 Still used in astrodynamics (vis-viva equation).
@trucid2 9 aylar önce
1:49:23 My man just asked The Last Question: Can entropy be reversed?
@williamshears9953 6 aylar önce
Insufficient data
@NicholBrummer 8 aylar önce
Read Lucretius poem 'on the nature of things' about ancient epicurean atomic theory, and you'll find that something very much like the second law was a motivation for basic particles, called atoms. If stuff can keep subdividing for ever, we will end up with some grey mix, irreversible. Life, and eg. an oak growing from an acorn, is possible thanks to the existence of basic building blocks, to build it from.
@joseotaviopompeuesilva8866 9 aylar önce
great history
@iCQ_www.SPCL.tk_ 8 aylar önce
Very nice pleasant reading and great video share +1 sub +1 like thanks sir!
@user-tn9dl8kl8e 7 aylar önce
The real talent is resolute aspirations。
@doowey22 8 aylar önce
Given the hypnosis that the known universe is expanding at an increasing rate of expansion, and given the second law of thermodynamics, is there a point in time when thermo energy ceases to exist in any particular region in space?
@friendlyone2706 8 aylar önce
Interesting question. Isn't that the kind of thinking that led to postulating absolute zero?
@raminsafizadeh 8 aylar önce
Fanbloodytastic! Thank you!
@mikeottink5393 2 aylar önce
@poloska9471 7 aylar önce
Washing dishes and cleaning house while listening to this + this is a mega habit for me = In 10 years I will be 10x smarter than all of my friends combined. I am 27 and people already comment on my intelligence and say I somehow know everything about everything … it pays to have good habits 🤷‍♂️ I used to be an idiot drug addict in my earlier years… so also have very strong grip of spirituality and happiness in life… and am very financially literate… and learned programming and so much more… idk why but this is a habit, my new addiction, and people like this and such channels give me the ability to be this way, for which I am infinitely grateful… I don’t know where I would be today if it wasn’t for such videos and an abundance of just raw beautiful knowledge and discussion online… thank you for making this, it brings me great pleasure. Earned a like and subscribe from me :)
@tadpoleinajar68 9 aylar önce
Much better at 1.5 speed, really needs "um's" extracted along with dead space/air. Excellent talk.
@anonymous.youtuber 9 aylar önce
By keeping the umms and thinking pauses in the video he is modeling a growth mindset, showing that learning is a process, and it's okay to make mistakes or take a moment to think. This approach will encourage others to adopt a similar mindset, making the video more impactful and inspiring.
@weinerdog137 9 aylar önce
I thought his asides were quite insightful. 1.25 for me.
@danscieszinski4120 7 aylar önce
Monads are the base currency of energy, let’s pay homage to those before us. Call them what you will.. holons, atoms of space, etc etc. The self referencing N-sphere lattice is the perfect scalar field as the datum of nature. Where I seem to diverge from Dr Wolfram is the fact that I believe all the parallel worlds of 4D space time AND the entire set of hyper objects and their own parallels are all equally real in the literal sense. The parallel world sheets of all objects provide the lateral buttressing (branchial space) of each possible movement for your specific reference frame and hierarchical level to stay consistent. The neighboring (adjacent) world sheets are of course also describing the super-positional footprint of the objects 4D integral. These superpositional footprints are what we now call dark matter, looking like place holders on your personal world-sheet, but very real for your doppelgänger. The transcendent worlds of gauge theory are very real vantage points (platforms, mezzanines) providing the foundation to our 4D finite experience. Our thread of time (in the drs language) is defined as our own 2D graph, growing with every moment as our minds update the data set. We live in a observationally generative experience on a 3D slice of the N-D bulk of all possible configurations, caged in a body that anchors us in time. The hyper lattice of N-spheres provide a perfect sponge like medium for GR to express itself in, its self referencing nature curling back on itself in the presence of mass on your personal world sheet. In other words, a proton is a standing wave in this ND medium, but only records itself on your personal history sheet when your mind consumes it. Finite particles borrow their energy from their surrounding ND lattice, and this borrowing mechanism expresses itself as deformed spacetime.
@jeff-onedayatatime.2870 9 aylar önce
I recommend Annie Ernaux's "The Years". :)
@will-vi9pk 8 aylar önce
Mayber Boltzmann: 1/2 mv^2 = 3/2 kT elimination of ( *k* ) (aka thus Heat = Kinetic energy)
@exmodule6323 6 aylar önce
The absolute madman
@jeff-onedayatatime.2870 9 aylar önce
If you ever start to lose faith in the esteemed Dr. Wolfram, just think "what would Feynman do?" :)
@ExecutiveChefLance 7 aylar önce
Tell you not to the study the deeper meaning of physics and just do the calculations. Which is exactly what he did do to the Guy who won the Nobel prize for his Bell Test. So I would actually imagine he would kind of be against a deeper examination of 2nd Law to be honest. Its honestly really odd to me the Dogma of Modern Copenhagen Interpretation. Why don't these people want to understand the How and Why? Einstein did instantly. Maybe I am wrong but seems crazy to me this guy had to "Hide" as Particle Physicist to study Quantum Fundamentals in the Dark. How about what would Einstein do?
@dannym5965 8 aylar önce
Thank you sir
@RadicalMarijuana 2 aylar önce
Interesting how long the idea of fire as an element, which is utterly WRONG, survived for so long during the development of thermodynamics.
@dixztube 5 aylar önce
Hes so smart
@ExecutiveChefLance 7 aylar önce
Parker "why specifically IR radiation and not other EMR" Is that the Parker I know? Infrared Radiation is given off at certain energies that is produced by the Vibration-Rotational movements of Molecules and Atoms as they return to the Equilibrium from constant Dipole Shifts. These energies are can literally be thought of as Vibration. Take an Atom at Absolute Zero. Vibrate it. The first Wave you produce is Radio. And as your increase the Vibration or "Heat" it gives off Waves along the Electromagnetic Spectrum. Black Body (an idealized opaque, non-reflective body) when heated gives off Thermal Radiation at Room Temperature. This can be the basis in your mind for why in General things give off Thermal Waves at the Temperature we Live In. Everything gives off IR above Absolute Zero. But because you are 98 degrees your perception of Snow for example is that it gives off no Heat. That is not the case. Like the Observer Effect in Quantum our relative perception of Heat makes this confusing. The general pattern is that as you Vibrate something. When we can measure 25 degrees Celsius. That thing gives off mostly Infrared Radiation. The Black Body graph gives you the generalized idea of how energetic something must be vibrating to give off the associated waves. This is different for all things. This difference in Wavelength emission and absorption between Elements and Chemical functional groups is the basis for Infrared Spectroscopy. This is how we know what Stars are made of. This is how we determine atmosphere of planets Light Years away. We have figured out that Giant Clouds of Hydrogen permeate the Universe because Light from Quasars are oddly shifted at Hydrogen Regions. Example the Carboxyl Group Carbon double bonded to Oxygen with two lone pairs of electrons C=O has absorption at 1500-1800 cm-1. So light passes through the Atmosphere of a Planet hits C=O and then we measure it. This is evidence of Organic Compounds. EM Radiation is constantly given off by all things. It is simply the energy at which that thing is at which determines the Wavelength. And for most living things that is IR. It gets pretty Metaphysical after that. Like why is Carbon the basis of life. 4 Valence Orbitals but is that it? Just the nature of things? Or why does Water Tension occur such that Life wouldn't exist without it. Think of the Sun. Because of its Energy it is giving off every single type of EM Radiation. You get Cancer because UV rays. We exist because of Visible Light rays. The sun warms us through IR Rays. Aurora's are made by Gamma Rays. Everything gives off all EM but the Energy and Geometry will essentially determine what Wavelength exists the most. It has been awhile since I studied Chloroplasts but I imagine they evolved from opposite logic from my last sentence. They evolved a Geometry which can take a Wavelength and turn it into energy. Sorry for Rant. One Sentence Answer. Because Rotational/Vibration movements of Atoms Energy correlates with IR Wavelength.
@thorntontarr2894 8 aylar önce
SW: @43:45 you make what I consider a prescient comment about the current Cosmological Concordance Model: "a dynamical theory of space ... dark matter will turn out to be something to do with the structure of space". As a mathematician it is likely for you to understand that Dark Matter and Dark Energy seem to be maths constructs to fit the data. Surely, GR is remarkable and must be taken seriously but what we have now, IMHO, is not without major philosophical difficulty. Again, thank you for making this comment. BTW, I am not a proponent of MOND but it and others should be considered along with GR as Cosmology is considered. To your history of the 2nd law - it was lengthy yet its historical complexity was given a fair hearing by you and I did follow it along. Thank you.
@ExecutiveChefLance 7 aylar önce
I thought that was Exactly what it was. But Observational Data. Such that any Calculation done without such a Math Construct would not represent the Reality of what we Observe. So yes a Math Construct. But for example if we discover like GR that Space is warped somehow, that Math Construct would fit exactly. Am I wrong? We are just plugging in numbers to fit with what we see. Now I have had the thought that what we see. Hubble's Law. Maybe that is Wrong. So it LITERALLY is a Math Construct with no Relation to Anything because the Observational Data is being skewed somehow like Quantum Observer Effect. A limit to the Doppler Shift? Something affecting the Shift? Something like that.
@thorntontarr2894 Aylar önce
@@ExecutiveChefLance Perhaps, I did not clearly stress this issue that without a set of GR equations - a maths construct - there would be NO evidence for Dark Energy and Dark Matter; there is NO theoretical justification for either of these terms. If you listen to SW @ 44:02, you will get closer to what I am trying to say.
@LadenChannel 9 aylar önce
SW: ' . . I am an amatuer scientist. . ."
@rexremedy1733 8 aylar önce
Caloric substance is not wrong. This substance is literally photonic in nature. So these classical idea is not at all wrong! It is correct!
@capoeirnesto 8 aylar önce
I wonder whether someone looked at smoke vortices to deduce some modern stuff about air and atomism.
@capoeirnesto 8 aylar önce
oooops. question answered. sorry.
@jeff-onedayatatime.2870 9 aylar önce
re: "mnemonic entropy". This is what the writer of Ecclesiastes was suffering from. Explanation: as you get old, you see patterns in everything, so you lose the freshness and wonder and awe you had as a child. We must regain that wonder, or we'll just lay down and die. Entropy being what it is, we will eventually lay down and die. But seize the day today. Work is the thing that overcomes entropy, so apply yourself, put yourself forward this day, whether you're 9 or 99. :)
@jeff-onedayatatime.2870 9 aylar önce
OK, so try this out. In memory, as we look back over the years, we lose track of the day to day happenings. Memory blurs and we only remember patterns. So though each day is discrete and computationally irreducible, observers like us find patterns wherever we can find them. :)
@jeff-onedayatatime.2870 9 aylar önce
This is a new kind of entropy, called mnemonic entropy. It is not to be confused with Boltzmann entropy, Shannon entropy, or Darwinian entropy (the third category thanks to Prof. Deacon).
@chrionite 2 aylar önce
I keep waking up to this
@robmorgan1214 9 aylar önce
Very good discussion of the history of the second law. However this is not always the "best"(most efficient) way to learn or build the neural architecture necessary to comprehend the second law and wrap your mind around the validity/rigor of the proofs and how they follow from "counting" and your other assumptions (all the way down to things like the axiom of choice). If you already have built those circuits and have a firm foundation, it's very useful to spend some time with Jaynes' papers on information theory and statistical mechanics as well as Tulsty's work on the emergence of information encoding channels in biological systems starting with the colorful origin of the genetic code (related to the "map coloring problem" which should be familiar to students of both CS and mathematics). Huang's textbook is also a very good reference to keep nearby. We only recently understood HOW to teach statmech and QM in a way that builds the connections between brain cells necessary to escape what I call the prefrontal cortex logic trap... you really do need to develop different circuits hardwired to think in other geometric topological and algebraic spaces than the seemingly Euclidean utopia we appear to inhabit (for example: the delay in adapting or remodeling neural architecture and maping it to the "comprehension" of new problem spaces may explain why proficiency in tasks like chess, though correlated with intelligence, do not measurably transfer to the acquisition of other skills once intelligence is controlled for). However, reviewing the history of how we went from observation to logic to testable mathematical models to conclusions capable of conferring an understanding of the generative processes behind principles like the second law is a wonderful exercise to if you want to get the feeling for how we move from the well characterized tame space of "accepted" science back into the unknown to find new phenomenon and refine our understanding of the universe.
@MS-od7je 9 aylar önce
Minute 14:15…. Although the object being moved may not be “expressing” heat Heat is required to move an object: as such it “experiences “ heat just though it is not aware of it.
@CandidDate 9 aylar önce
This makes me think we moderns haven't added that much besides nuclear bombs/energy, since they had it all figured out. Aside from the transistor, which makes instantaneous communication possible, yet physics and heat death remain no matter who we can talk to.
@weinerdog137 9 aylar önce
When does charge collapse result in coherence? My pondering for today.
@nunomaroco583 9 aylar önce
Hi, just amazing. ..
@darrellee8194 Aylar önce
Corpuscles of Fire. Those would be photons.
@scarlett_j 7 aylar önce
Dark matter has more sticky properties.
@joseotaviopompeuesilva8866 9 aylar önce
I read the 3 posts in your blog
@scarter9447 7 aylar önce
Everything is made of fire hehe lol there's a sound bite 🔥
@christophergame7977 7 aylar önce
Some people now say 'dilation'.
@Sam-we7zj 8 aylar önce
I know youve paused this to do chatgpt stuff but im chomping at the bit for the next vid
@salwaneleyland5874 9 aylar önce
Yes i twix them. I never mised a plug sires. X
@TheMemesofDestruction 9 aylar önce
Knotted vortices and back again. ^.^
@TheMemesofDestruction 9 aylar önce
@mikefuller9073 I was terrible at maths! Unless it had a reason I was interested in like physics, business or video games. ^.^
@TheMemesofDestruction 9 aylar önce
@@mikefuller9073 Seemed like a pretty cool Dude. ^.^
@Iophiel 8 aylar önce
Fire is hot.
@thebeautifulones5436 9 aylar önce
Very clever people have large heads.
@MS-od7je 9 aylar önce
“ The Mismeasure of Man”- Stephen J Gould
@paulwebb6914 7 aylar önce
'Umm' count plz....
@jorgeAKAgeorgesimonhernandez 8 aylar önce
Re-entry hot hot hot hot
@jorgeAKAgeorgesimonhernandez 8 aylar önce
time and entropy are not the same ?have You ever seen an egg shaped time machine?
@ikediamond 8 aylar önce
Read there is a problem with the whole pressure gradient adjacent to a space vacuum thinga magidjet.
@xiaolinli 5 aylar önce
Umm, aaa, ummm.
@bexhill8777 8 aylar önce
"Abhours a vacum" ..thenc why does our atmosphere not disapate into that great void,for if it were to disapate whenc went gravity ?
@SebastianSchepis 8 aylar önce
um um ummm um the um um the um umm um the um - are you trying to drive everyone insane?? STOP focusing on electronic devices and FOCUS on your presentation! Are you running a workshop or giving a lecture? For the sake of your viewers PLEASE decide.
@mjja00 2 aylar önce
Perhaps Boyle with his talk of hairs/fleece was a early proponent of String Theory?
@artgarrelli6752 7 aylar önce
Dark matter is already the caloric theory! It’s quite entertaining to learn about some of the theories science theorized! A few quack examples-Gravity, Big Bang, dark matter, black holes, manned space travel. Man evolved from apes. Earth orbits the sun….lol!
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