The Longest-Running Evolution Experiment

  görünümler 5,448,215



Yıl önce

If you ran evolution all over again, would you get humans? How repeatable is ? This video is sponsored by @BountyBrand.

Special thanks to Prof. Richard Lenski and team for showing me around the lab - it is an honor to be able to witness and document such a historic science experiment.
Thanks to Dr Zachary Blount for the help with research and setting up the competition time-lapse, Dr Nkrumah Grant for microscope images of the long-term line cells @NkrumahGrant
Devin Lake, Kate Bellgowan, and Dr. Minako Izutsu for being part of this video. Long Live the LTEE!

LTEE website -
Intro footage courtesy of the Kishony Lab -
Lenski, R. E., & Travisano, M. (1994). Dynamics of adaptation and diversification: a 10,000-generation experiment with bacterial populations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 91(15), 6808-6814. -

Lenski, R. E., Rose, M. R., Simpson, S. C., & Tadler, S. C. (1991). Long-term experimental evolution in Escherichia coli. I. Adaptation and divergence during 2,000 generations. The American Naturalist, 138(6), 1315-1341. -

Good, B. H., McDonald, M. J., Barrick, J. E., Lenski, R. E., & Desai, M. M. (2017). The dynamics of molecular evolution over 60,000 generations. Nature, 551(7678), 45-50. -

Blount, Z. D., Borland, C. Z., & Lenski, R. E. (2008). Historical contingency and the evolution of a key innovation in an experimental population of Escherichia coli. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105(23), 7899-7906. -

Blount, Z. D., Lenski, R. E., & Losos, J. B. (2018). Contingency and determinism in evolution: Replaying life’s tape. Science, 362(6415). -

Wiser, M. J., Ribeck, N., & Lenski, R. E. (2013). Long-term dynamics of adaptation in asexual populations. Science, 342(6164), 1364-1367. -

N, Scharping. (2019). How a 30-Year Experiment Has Fundamentally Changed Our View of How Evolution Works. Discover -

Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Mike Tung, Evgeny Skvortsov, Meekay, Ismail Öncü Usta, Paul Peijzel, Crated Comments, Anna, Mac Malkawi, Michael Schneider, Oleksii Leonov, Jim Osmun, Tyson McDowell, Ludovic Robillard, Jim buckmaster, fanime96, Juan Benet, Ruslan Khroma, Robert Blum, Richard Sundvall, Lee Redden, Vincent, Marinus Kuivenhoven, Alfred Wallace, Arjun Chakroborty, Joar Wandborg, Clayton Greenwell, Pindex, Michael Krugman, Cy 'kkm' K'Nelson, Sam Lutfi, Ron Neal

Research and Writing by by Derek Muller, Petr Lebedev and Casey Rentz
Animation by Iván Tello
Filmed by Derek Muller, Emily Zhang and Raquel Nuno
Edited by Derek Muller
Music by Jonny Hyman and from Epidemic Sound
Additional video supplied by Getty Images
Thumbnail image courtesy of the Kishony Lab
Produced by Casey Rentz

YORUMLAR: 28 232
Zeus KF
Zeus KF Yıl önce
You can tell that this professor really is interested in what he is doing.
elastichedgehog 5 gün önce
@-- ​ Good for him! Although, I doubt that was the case for most of his career and it certainly isn't the case for *most* academics.
-- 5 gün önce
@ChaCha how do you know how research grants are awarded?
-- 5 gün önce
@elastichedgehog > academia career not for the money Apparently Lenski had a $300k annual salary in 2019, according to govsalaries. Sounds pretty good money to me for fing around for 30 years.
T Greaux
T Greaux 3 aylar önce
You think? Maybe thats why he chose to dedicate his entire adult life to studying it and making a career out of it. Go figure
Marc Crockett
Marc Crockett 7 aylar önce
When people are as passionate as Prof. Richard Lenski, you can't help but want to learn/ hear more
Steve Winans
Steve Winans 12 saatler önce
is it Richard Lenski?
Thomas S.
Thomas S. 4 aylar önce
@John Doe how so?
John Doe
John Doe 5 aylar önce
Sad that such passion is under full-scale assault in the West.
XerxesTheCommuter 5 aylar önce
He has a wonderful mind.
grys 17 gün önce
This professor is frighteningly good at explaining and keeping his audience engaged. I can see why he spoke for most of the video, and how there seems to be minimal cuts / editing of footage. Amazing! Thoroughly enjoyed grasping new concepts from listening to him.
Triairius 3 gün önce
@Benjamin Roodenburg Look, you asked. I don't know what to tell you other than what I know. If you want to argue, there are better ways to do it than to rope in someone who genuinely is trying to answer what I thought was an honest question.
MaskOnFilterOff 3 gün önce
​@Benjamin Roodenburg It's a common way to say, essentially, "awe-inspiring". It's exaggerating the awe to the point of fear, since the two often go hand in hand. Think, like, an eldritch horror or "the fear of God" or something. If you think about it, you'll probably realize you've heard people say things like "this is scary good" or "she's so hot it's scary"? Strong negative descriptors are often used to emphasize something positive. It's similar to using "crazy good" (so good it seems unreal; no literal mental illness involved) or "stupid good" (so good that you're dumbfounded; nothing to do with literal stupidity).
Benjamin Roodenburg
Benjamin Roodenburg 3 gün önce
@Triairius exaggeration of the word scary? Why would it be scary in any kind of way? It being figurative would mean it has something in common with the emotion he’s trying to convey. I don’t think fear was the intended emotion. If I destroy someone in chess I can call it a massacre. Meaning that the opposition had not chance whatsoever. That would be the correlation, but I can’t see such a thing return in his wording.
Triairius 4 gün önce
@Benjamin Roodenburg It isn't. It's figurative. Exaggerated for effect.
Benjamin Roodenburg
Benjamin Roodenburg 4 gün önce
Why is it frightening?
MysticVitriol 2 aylar önce
Imagine one of these days one colony forms a multicellular structure. Or 'cannibalise' but not really and form a structure similar to mitochondria or chloroplast. That would be sooo cool.
Ashurean 9 gün önce
I bet there will be a day where we observe that kind of evolution in a laboratory environment, maybe it won't be from this experiment, maybe it won't be for another hundred years, but I bet it'll happen, and it'll be really cool.
GamePhysics 10 gün önce
@Greyshadow 5 That's interesting. 1 billion years is indeed a while! I've been thinking about trying to make an evolution simulator. Some people have done it to an extent, but not good enough I think. You'd have to design some sort of system that gives random variety in genes of the evolving species and then another system that decides which variety is most beneficial for survival in the current environment. Then along the way you could adjust atmospheric composition, temperature, etc. Obviously coding such a simulation would be incredibly challenging and time-consuming. But besides being really fun, you could easily alter things such as the rate of time, so you wouldn't have to wait a billion years for multicellular organisms.
MysticVitriol 10 gün önce
@Sharp Shark i dont think there need to be a need for evolutionary pressure to "evolve" a trait. i think it is random. it is after the trait has been evolved the environment will decide which one is good enough to reproduce. that environment includes us . so the random sample we take everyday might remove the 'trait for multicellular' by accident. it is also possible that we look and suspect a 'multicellular trait' and we decide to cultivate it
Sharp Shark
Sharp Shark 10 gün önce
One issue though: is there evolutionary pressure for that?
Greyshadow 5
Greyshadow 5 13 gün önce
Achieving multicellularism will be pretty hard,it took unicellular organisms about a billion years to evolve into multicelled organisms after all,but after thats achieved this experiment might be a lot more interesting,because it can create a lot more diversity and thus a stronger selection.
Parvathy Pramod
Parvathy Pramod 5 aylar önce
The world of bacteria and archaea is really different. Trust me when i say i was stunned when my professor said “We have more bacterial cells in our body than our cells” on my first microbiology class. Their world teaches us the ‘will to survive’ in any condition
Struggle 10 gün önce
@EredilElexi Nah, it's true. Those bacterium though compared to the size of one human cell are relatively small though. So, in terms of mass of these cells we are majority human.
Sean Padden
Sean Padden Aylar önce
​@EredilElexi OK, you made a claim, provide evidence.
EredilElexi Aylar önce
This has been proven wrong
DQMYNATOR 2.0 3 aylar önce
Hello there, you handsome looking container of a brazillion microorganisms how about we .... ... meh. - I find my way out.
Ayisy Amirul
Ayisy Amirul Yıl önce
His team has been doing this for 33 years and not missed a single day? Now that’s commitment.
B M 3 gün önce
@S F perhaps interns
Aeons 5 gün önce
@S F As if they earn a lot of money with this... That's a pretty ignorant claim.
Chris -0
Chris -0 6 gün önce
they missed alot of days, nonsense comment
cream boy
cream boy 6 gün önce
"ALMOST every single day" - Veritasium hmmm... now I wonder what the truth is
Antonio De Bonis
Antonio De Bonis 7 gün önce
Which means all this money is working towards a scientific ideal. Money in the service of curiosity.
Solar 24
Solar 24 2 aylar önce
What an absolutely astounding experiment I’ve never heard of. Hopefully we can keep it going
adam84144 8 gün önce
That was fantastic! I'm not particularly biology-minded but the way he engaged with the subject and described the experiment had me glued to my monitor.
DarkKnightUK 2 gün önce
I’m going to echo what a lot of people have said; he’s so enthusiastic about what he is talking about that it made me want to read so much more than just watching this video. I’ll also follow on from another Veritasium video; what if the mutation was due to a cosmic ray switching a biological 0 to a 1? Given a long enough time scale, and a relative abundance of mutatable material, all it takes is one…
Corne Mouton
Corne Mouton 5 aylar önce
How cool is Prof. Richard Lenski, damnit, was so fascinating listening to him. Interesting video, thank you!
S.Unosson 24 gün önce
@Sandro Félix What about the fact that mutations are practically exclusively deleterious? The mathematics of millions of bad mutations compared to a few possibly beneficial ones is difficult to explain as the source of new and ever more complex functional life forms. All cancer for example is result of mutations.
Sandro Félix
Sandro Félix Aylar önce
@S.Unosson humans are complex organisms. We have millions of complex cells ready for mutations all the time, also the environment around us (virus, atmosphere, etc) push our evolution toward. The experiment is based on a simple bacteria on a controlled environment, so it is reasonable that the experiment showed less mutations than you thought it would happen
S.Unosson 5 aylar önce
But if the only significant change in 74500 generations is a small change in what these bacteria digest, the logical conclusion is that there did not happen much evolution at all. If that represents 1.1 million years in humans, in what way does it confirm human evolution?
Strawberry Zebras
Strawberry Zebras Yıl önce
Never thought I'd see a TRshowr sponsored by paper towels
nokia1218 21 saatler önce
ZTenski 7 gün önce
The thicker, quicker picker upper... BOUN-TY!
Hello there
Hello there 13 gün önce
Jared Coleman
Jared Coleman 27 gün önce
Its a better investment for them than almost every show on tv
Monty Stice
Monty Stice 29 gün önce
Fredward 5 aylar önce
This has to be my favorite video of yours. I have watched it so many times. Not just because of the topic, but because of how it was presented. Every time I watch it, it never gets old. A great video overall.
Thomas Dohn
Thomas Dohn 10 gün önce
I just read The Greatest Show On Earth by Richard Dawkins, who outlined this exact experiment. It was amazing to have it vusialized and brought to life here. Thank you for sharing 🙂
GamePhysics Aylar önce
This is freaking amazing! Counting by hand when you have cameras and computers seems a bit oldschool, but I can respect the ritual.
Israel S. Garcia
Israel S. Garcia 14 gün önce
The fact the it took so long to use carbon from a different source makes me think that was the same when life was formed. Maybe it took a bit of a time because there was some unknown condition that neeeded to be required first. Maybe some day, scientists will know what condition that would be. Or maybe not.
Just Some Guy without a Mustache
Just Some Guy without a Mustache Yıl önce
A wise man once said: "Life finds a way."
360dec!mated 2 aylar önce
-Scientist from Jurassic World
Mr. Cool
Mr. Cool 2 aylar önce
Naymy 2 aylar önce
And don't forget, a wiser man once wrote it.
steve steve
steve steve 2 aylar önce
@Average Alien He's the opposite of wise
Rique 3 aylar önce
No sir, a mustache finds a way.
Fraser3005 6 saatler önce
Absolutely amazing. It’s the kind of science you might not even consider, but to be able to quantify evolution….just imagine the things humans could achieve if we can just avoid destroying ourselves first
Jaime Schorr
Jaime Schorr 7 aylar önce
I would have spent hours talking with him about life and evolution, such an interesting topic. As a geologist I see life in other ways as the time constraints are much larger. Fascinating video man, thanks.
Philip Dunne
Philip Dunne 3 aylar önce
This experiment is helping to refine the theory of evolution and is raising and answering really interesting questions. Great work.
Alex TW
Alex TW 26 gün önce
So fascinating and great testament to the dedication of the professor. I did start to wonder if despite the extremely controlled environment there are in fact some uncontrolled aspects influencing evolution. For example, if the lab techs tend to select solution from the bottom of the flask could they be selecting for bacteria that tends to grow under greater pressure? Not suggesting this is the case and such a hypothesis could be confounded by a systematic shaking of the flask but anyway, just a thought-provoking experiment/video all around.
Amirreza Azimi
Amirreza Azimi Yıl önce
The professor is so good at explaining what they do and what they have found!
Tony Hakston
Tony Hakston 5 aylar önce
@S.Unosson What you call a small change is actually pretty big. E. coli’s inability to metabolize citrate when exposed to air is notable to the point of being a defining feature of the species. Such a major change honestly warranted speciation. Heck, it’d be a big thing even if it weren’t a defining feature. Change in metabolic capability is very difficult to develop, which is why pandas STILL can’t effectively metabolize plants despite bamboo being their entire diet.
S.Unosson 5 aylar önce
But if the only significant change in 74500 generations is a small change in what these bacteria digest, the logical conclusion is that there did not happen much evolution at all. If that represents 1.1 million years in humans, in what way does it confirm human evolution?
Light Woven
Light Woven 5 aylar önce
@Tony Hakston trolling are we. Guess so bye. Conditionally ofc.
Tony Hakston
Tony Hakston 5 aylar önce
@Light Woven Do you not know what a prerequisite is? Because that’s the only way your response makes sense in regards to what I said.
Light Woven
Light Woven 5 aylar önce
@Tony Hakston speciation is not the same. There is no change in form, neither in these bacterium or in drosophila. I will point you to the RNA experiments on those pesky flies whereby injection of the most complex eye DNA from the squid shows no modification. This is due to RNA limitation of 'reading'/ignoring sequences. Calling the test an evolution experiment is a misnomer. Generational transformation has not occurred.
Cody Goza
Cody Goza 3 aylar önce
That professor's passion and the way he explained things made me more interested in science than anything else has before. Very understandable.
Mick ALLEN 10 gün önce
Brilliant presentation, very incitefull, evolution is a fascinating topic.
Triairius 14 gün önce
Wow. This is an incredible experiment! So freaking cool!
Infinite Nothingness
Infinite Nothingness 2 aylar önce
I love Veritasium's videos. I just can't think about anything else while being glued to my screen and then I realize how much time has passed.
TechSource Yıl önce
Absolutely loving these videos man. Keep up the grind!!!
Dawn Ripper
Dawn Ripper Yıl önce
Yo, you're still alive? Haven't seen one of your videos since you got robbed cuz YT stopped recommending.
devysk Yıl önce
make me a pc
MASTER nobody
MASTER nobody Yıl önce
I dont like theory of evolution exist it is wrong science
Curious Doc
Curious Doc Yıl önce
The Prof is such an engaging speaker! I could hear him talk science all day
pazonk Yıl önce
What is secksource doing here
Mars 5 aylar önce
Comment about the sponsor: keep in mind that dish cloths are more friendly to the environment, so it's better to use them to clean casual messes, instead of constantly using paper towels that sometimes aren't biodegradable, or aren't recycled. Using soap to clean the dish cloth regularly should eliminate the bacteria problem in most cases. But ofc, sometimes using paper towels is better, specially for certain messes like cleaning up after using the toilet, cleaning messes from pets , cleaning certain toxic materials, nail polish, or anything that permanently damages the dish cloth or whatever cloth you use.
Ashurean 9 gün önce
I was actually going to comment something along these lines. I feel it's better to have a bunch of towels that you cycle through and wash than to keep buying disposable towels into perpetuity.
Mark Witucke
Mark Witucke 14 gün önce
Towels rubbed with white soap, then into a weak bleach solution at the end of each day. Bacteria problem solved. -A Cook
boo Jay
boo Jay 4 aylar önce
Would be cool to see another video like this with Will Ratcliff who is doing a similar experiment with yeast to unravel the evolution of multicellularity. Sean Carroll did a podcast interview with Will which I highly recommend on Mindscape, but I'd like to see the Veritasium treatment to get more animations and visuals of the experiments.
Michaël Katgerman
Michaël Katgerman 5 aylar önce
Nice Video 💦 Nice to know that these bacteria (test objects from nature) change in a closed environment and that is "naturally" checked in this laboratory. Have they also tested it with other conditions like light and nutrition that anyone knows? Greetzz MiKa
Aidan Killeen
Aidan Killeen 5 aylar önce
That's incredible! At first, I really didn't think this would be very interesting, but it sure is a good thing that guy kept the project going.
Sciencerely Yıl önce
As a human biologist, I think there are also astonishing examples of rapid evolution in humans. To give an example, a mutation occurred roughly 20 000 years ago in Europe which made people lactose tolerant. Since lactose tolerance supported survival during repeated periods of starvation, it rapidly spread to different populations and contributed to greater population growth (I made a video about this ). This mutation was so successful that we can find it in the majority of all people of European descent today!
Thành Vinh Nguyên Tô
Thành Vinh Nguyên Tô Aylar önce
What? I've always thought lactose intolerance was a rare thing. Milk is just so good
Jenbo 3 aylar önce
3@Insertia Nameia You are describing almost exactly my lactose intolerance. I can't drink straight milk but take it in tea. I do avoid yogurts though. Cheeses I used to be able to eat but with age I avoid the softer cheeses like Brie and Camembert and stick to harder cheeses such Cheddar and Edam. I didn't get the runs either but would get a very uncomfortable heavy feeling in the intestine region I didn't throw up except for once when tried milk for the lactose intolerant which had expired, as it didn't taste sour or off I had inadvertently drunk it. Hot chocolate and milkshakes I wouldn't dream of drinking. Nut milks are ok but they come in litre packs which is too much for my consummation as they only keep for 4 to 5 days. I suffer from osteoporosis and my bone doctor told me to eat plenty of dairy products presumably because of the vitamin D content but apparently it is not the best source of vitamin D (D2) as the high proportion of protein content of milk prevents efficient absorption . Much better vitamin D sources are sardines, mackerel cods' liver, salmon (smoked and fresh) and other oily fish - oysters and and probably caviar are quite good too !!! They contain vitamin D3 which is more easily absorbed. Well enough said. Remember that chocolate milk doesn' t come from brown cows.!!
Jacob O'Neil
Jacob O'Neil 5 aylar önce
Why do you and your type always conflate macro and micro evolution?
S.Unosson 5 aylar önce
But if the only significant change in 74500 generations is a small change in what these bacteria digest, the logical conclusion is that there did not happen much evolution at all. If that represents 1.1 million years in humans, in what way does it confirm human evolution?
David Schmidt
David Schmidt 5 aylar önce
It's fascinating to hear a scientist at his level speak is entrancing. He's speaking from sheer, pure, accumulated knowledge and experience.
Cherri Berri
Cherri Berri 3 aylar önce
WOAH! Pure chance, but as soon as I heard citrate was in the solution I thought to myself that that would be a secondary carbon source and that they'd oughtta keep an eye on it. Awesome!
Cernunnos W.
Cernunnos W. 5 gün önce
Great proof of practice in observing evolution. Just take these finds to the next level and applied all living things, and you got good explanations.
Ed Ku
Ed Ku 5 aylar önce
Great enthusiastic scientist. You can tell that he has his whole heart into this project. Thank you.
ChrisBrengel 4 aylar önce
Very fortunate is the man (person) who loves his job!
Just a Dummy
Just a Dummy Yıl önce
People miss that the opening video of the Antibacterial-Resistant Bacteria showcases exactly why you shouldn’t overuse antibiotics.
Cosmic Perspective
Cosmic Perspective Aylar önce
@Sean Padden I didn't say the vaccine interferes. You keep steering the conversation in a new direction and ATTEMPTING to twist my words as if to deflect. How about you just explain how the adverse events have happened with your extreme articulation? I meant unknown deaths were the most elevated compared to prior years. Cancer rates remained similar. Also I worked in QC, and the chromatography didn't look good but everyone was to afraid to speak up for fear that if they got in the way of this , they would lose their job during hard economic times. So regardless of how how you believe the mRNA functions, it still comes down to manufacturing it effectively, and I would argue from first hand perspective that manufacturing and quality were leaving a lot to be desired. Yes this is a consequence on of breaking regulations to push these out too fast. The huberis u must have to think you have a complete grasp on this. It's unsettling tbh.
Cosmic Perspective
Cosmic Perspective Aylar önce
@Sean Padden true but still doesn't invalidate the general and palatable statement I made and also , There have been empirically observed advers side effects, because when you modify the mRNA- protein synthesis mechanism, there can be unwanted flaws in the synthesis of your desired protein. There are intervening mechanisms that are impacted also. Around 2008 an mRNA vaccine was issued to thousands of teens in Europe and there ended up being widespread narcolepsy. The problem is this wasn't refined enough and lacked longitudinal studies during it's early rollout. You know, when the subverted important FDA regulations in order to push these out.
xinSANEweTRUSTx 2 aylar önce
This channel is awesome! Even the people you interview are so passionate
sylvain raynaud
sylvain raynaud 8 gün önce
The conclusion on never ending improvement would be interesting to put in perspective by comparing the robustness/adaptability to other environments of the ancestors versus specialized offsprings. Is the most evolved also the most fragile ??
Garrett Reynolds 🇺🇸
Garrett Reynolds 🇺🇸 7 aylar önce
I’m interested in seeing their sequence data from when they started to now. Edit: From their original strain to the modern strain.
Sean Padden
Sean Padden Aylar önce
In the published paper they did sequence a few generations of bacteria before the strain that could use citrate and the sequence showed it was a series of mutations that led to the change.
Mike Hughes
Mike Hughes 5 aylar önce
At first I thought the fluorescent material would move with the bacteria as in a local pattern. I didn’t realize there’d be this symbiotic relationship with humans…
Jani Kärkkäinen
Jani Kärkkäinen Yıl önce
I love how Dr. Lenski is really happy and visibly proud of the work he and his team has done, while at the same time giving a very humble and down to earth aura.
FiveHiveMind 8 aylar önce
@Tyrell Wellick So, to sum up, you are claiming that Lenski is either wrong or lying, or am I misunderstanding you?
FiveHiveMind 8 aylar önce
@Tyrell Wellick I never said Darwinism wasn't a word. You do realize evolutionary theory is referred to as the modern synthesis, right?
John Giallanza
John Giallanza 3 aylar önce
Veritasium's videos are always great, but 'bacteria Fight Club' took it to the next level. Bravo!
Timbraska 4 aylar önce
The methods of the experiment really show how old it is. Like all that exachaning fluids by hand, analyzing with colours, counting by hand... Still very impressive that he had the resilience to keep it going.
Thomas Trotter
Thomas Trotter 5 aylar önce
Fascinating stuff, as usual. Thanks! 👍
Doug Narby
Doug Narby 5 aylar önce
Does mutation in this context mean any difference from the parent cells, or actual mutation due to the impact of an outside agent like cosmic rays, etc?
Indigo Yıl önce
This is one of the strangest TRshow sponsorships I've seen in a while. Almost as strange as when literally everyone suddenly made videos about Dyson vacuums a few years ago
I'm not arrogant, I'm just better than you.
I'm not arrogant, I'm just better than you. 7 aylar önce
@Lucien Hughes "No one is getting seriously ill from using reusable dishcloths." No one, really? Wouldn't that depend on how reusable dishcloths are being used and the type of microbes being spread? I assume you have some empirical evidence for your contention.
Xplora213 Yıl önce
Video on viruses... paper towel 🧻 sounds like a great combo to me.
Jelmer Yıl önce
@Jake Hix Can't you see whats wrong with your statement? Youre practically saying "This is far more disruptive and wasteful than that, so we should focus on this first before we can work on that" if we want to combat waste and environmental damage we should focus on as much as possible at a time. Because by the time you get to the second problem it would've probably spun out of control by then. By the way.. that means 3.600.000.000 kg's or 7.800.000.000 pounds of paper towels are NOT getting recycled and probably ending up in landfills.. and were talking from the US alone...
God 2: Electric Boogaloo
God 2: Electric Boogaloo Yıl önce
didn't veritasium get sponsored by google one time?
ggg Yıl önce
It’s weird that he accepted, knowing that disposables are contributing to global warming
Fish 5 aylar önce
Great example of micro evolution. After that many generations you still have e.coli.
dwrabauke 5 aylar önce
I really do hope that there will be someone from his team to continue this experiment as his legacy after he has passed some day in the hopefully far future. This is groundbreaking science, and I am pretty sure we haven't even seen everything yet.
SirPano85 5 aylar önce
I work for the italian agriculture research council (CREA) like an agricultural worker and just to know we too do evolution experiments, for example we took differents populations of ancient grain and we cultiveted in 2 opposite side of Italy (near Bologna and the other one in Sicily), after some years of that the researcher looked what was changed in the two different environment, this is still running so we will see.
Tomi 2 aylar önce
Thats awesome. Saluti da Slovenia ;)
Shiva Agrawal
Shiva Agrawal 7 aylar önce
Hey, thanks man for the video....I am just happy that there are people like you who can give us(scientists in incubation) a virtual feel of academic lab tour and conversation with such brilliant minds....Evolution is a topic of madness for some and personally, I belongs to them. So, the information you sharead was well put and balanced and special thanks for the dessert The references.
Jorge Antonio Hernandez Navarrete
Jorge Antonio Hernandez Navarrete Yıl önce
That freezing bacteria technique, sounds like a Git for biologists.
NightEule5 Yıl önce
@MASTER nobody Ok? What makes it wrong?
NightEule5 Yıl önce
pretty much
Juan Iglesias
Juan Iglesias Yıl önce
@Vigilant Cosmic Penguin tbh i'm slightly concerned about pushing to master. what if we end up with an e coli super race dominating our citrus fruits?
Vigilant Cosmic Penguin
Vigilant Cosmic Penguin Yıl önce
The only difference being you don't have to worry about accidentally pushing something to master.
cKay Yıl önce
@Captainzilla418 actually we can and we already do. With Genetics we can change the DNA of organisms and cells to a point where the DNA has only the Properties which we want and this DNA is then used. We already eat a lot of genetically modified food for example. Bananas for example arent normally yellow, shiny and juicy, they have been modified to have that property and they are selling better than the ancestor banana. Unfortunately though, the gene modification can be dangerous if you dont know the long term effects, that's why we dont use it on animals or plants yet. We just dont know the long term effects yet because Genetics is pretty new to humanity (if i remember correctly the first humans who began with genetics lived in 1960 or something)
YoniMek 3 aylar önce
I like how the researcher at the end gets so excited by the extrapolation power of his power curve. Still, a profound finding.
Sodeep 20 gün önce
Cool experiment. My only concern is if human error can be produced faster than bacteria mutation. Too much lab work not to mess it up and contaminate once.
Godwin Igiri
Godwin Igiri 4 aylar önce
I wish that they could trace bacterial haplotypes from this experiment. This could clarify some of our assumptions about human haplogroups.
PinusMugo 5 aylar önce
It is so nice to hear people lifes observations and experiences in science. Powerfull stuff. I learned so much. :)
Jackson Peterson
Jackson Peterson 10 aylar önce
I just like the fact that when he was talking about how long it would take for the bacteria to take up the observable universe if given the material it would take 42 days. Just makes me think of Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy. Where the number 42 is “the answer to life the universe and everything”.
KS Tishko
KS Tishko 11 gün önce
@Harry Sarai search engine
D Thomas
D Thomas 11 gün önce
@88marome 0 is nothing, and 42 is nothing, is 420 nothing squared? Life is an ass to Adams said.
Harry Sarai
Harry Sarai 11 gün önce
@KS Tishko whats google?
KS Tishko
KS Tishko 12 gün önce
hahaha, google "the answer to life the universe and everything"
Vileski Targaff
Vileski Targaff 6 aylar önce
I wish the video was 2 hours long! so interesting…and I wish that scientist was my professor; his enthusiasm and profoundness is extremely captivating.
Andre Angelo
Andre Angelo 5 aylar önce
This video was just amazing! Thank you for that!
DCMPSaliva 6 aylar önce
This is really and interesting and cool, I really hope they don’t do this with a virus and accidentally release it
13minutestomidnight 3 aylar önce
This experiment is very informative and provides a lot of data on adaptation over generations, but the COVID-19 pandemic pretty much recreated the experiment, except with humanity as the petri dish. Essentially, with the high human population, and especially the high density living in cities, humans created a situation where the virus had an incredibly high rate of transmission and access to new energy sources when they colonised a person, which allowed the virus to spread and mutate at an exponential rate. Admittedly, it;s a bit different from the experiment, because the immune system (and later, the vaccines) challenged the colonisation and persistence of the virus within each individual human, and each human had a slightly different assortment of genes that could impact the virus's environmental parameters, but it's pretty similar. Only density of living and protocols for pandemic management (like masks and social distancing) would alter the external circumstances. Well, It's very interesting scientifically, but I'd rather our governments learn from this how easy it is for human communities to become petri dishes for pathogenic microbes, and how to prevent disease clusters from mirroring this experiment. ...Or more accurately: why to listen to their virology and epidemiology experts *cough*
Danni Feveile Börm
Danni Feveile Börm Yıl önce
In this very moment, one of these E coli bacteria pauses, looks at its friend and goes: "Dude, do you think we live in a simulation?" (Edit: Stay away from the sub comments to this comment. Not worth it.)
FiveHiveMind 8 aylar önce
@Aleph I rarely block people on YT, but that 'citric acid cycle' obsessed individual is just too much.. What a wacko😜
Aleph 8 aylar önce
@Васян Нирванов holy crap bro it's been 5 months why are you still here
Васян Нирванов
Васян Нирванов 8 aylar önce
@FiveHiveMind " with people who don't understand science" >>> looool, wrote guy who even do not understand about citric acid cycle in molecular biology))) you so "smart"...pooor baby.
FiveHiveMind 8 aylar önce
@Васян Нирванов I've commented to you, now I'm done. I don't discuss science related topics with people who don't understand science. I'm not your teacher-- educate yourself.
venki Perni
venki Perni 4 aylar önce
Thank you for sharing this with the world.
Motherfucking Dat Boi
Motherfucking Dat Boi 7 aylar önce
Please make a second part of this!!! The passion of the professor is so inspiring that it left me wanting to keep watching!! Awesome video, awesome explanation.. The statistical bit was so good, it left me thinking what are the predictions going to be!! Could the DNA be mapped in a way in which they could create a model that would predict what would happen if x bacteria made y mutation in z coding region? Run simulations? Really, awesome video. Congratulations.
Nikolai Lucyk
Nikolai Lucyk 4 aylar önce
Surely the longest running evolution experiment is the universe.
murderdogg 5 aylar önce
7:57 looks like a -80°C freezer to me. Also, Veritasium channel and Derek are really, really on the top level of TRshow science vids.
LittleLight Yıl önce
he was so happy to tell someone about his experiment, made my heart warm xD
Idjles Erle
Idjles Erle 4 aylar önce
And to tell someone who would gift him millions of views.
Thalassaer 7 aylar önce
@sr1nu fix your irritable mood
twinxcloudy! 7 aylar önce
@sr1nu xD doesn't mean laugh
Lachie Perrem
Lachie Perrem 3 aylar önce
I don't care how many times I watched veritasium videos they always blow my mind
James Henthorn
James Henthorn 7 aylar önce
I like this guy. He sounds so enthusiastic and passionate about this experiment, and has clearly gotten quite good at explaining it to people with limited knowledge.
P 5 aylar önce
Einstein's quote is that if you can't explain something then you don't really understand it. Feynman's quote is that if you want to really understand something then you have to teach it.
Leo B
Leo B 5 aylar önce
Imagine when one of the bacteria decides to eat glass. Anyway, that was an amazing video and experiment!
Mickelodian Surname
Mickelodian Surname 5 aylar önce
There are bacteria that have evolved to consume polymers like plastic... glass is a rather unique structure but it does contain silicates and potash and limestone... You can force bacteria to select for gaining energy from those things. So yeah, thats not as far fetched as you might think. WHY anyone would find it useful I have no idea. Generally speaking its a lot cheaper to simply genetically modify bacteria these days without going through millions of generations of evolutionary selection.
Seth N.
Seth N. 7 aylar önce
The amount of bacteria solution needed by day 42 requiring enough volume to fill our entire universe is INSANE
B X Yıl önce
Generation 990k: "what do you mean it evolved to eat glass and petri dishes?"
水`しずお 22 gün önce
Generation 999999999999999999999k: mom I successfully made 10 human cultures they are reproducing faster than we thought...
John Doe 321
John Doe 321 11 aylar önce
@Louie Cypher haha.... I gave up Keyboards a decade ago when I started using A.I. Voice Typing instead! :DDD should try it? spell checks, is fast as hell... and I don't have to lift a finger or press a key! LOL.... ;-)))
David Micek
David Micek 11 aylar önce
@Sebastian Wendl Then why do so many species need a male and female to replicate? Wouldn't it have been simpler for EVERYTHING to continue to exist by self-replicating? Take a bacterium that mutated so that it could no longer self-replicate (call it male). Then it had to casually run into another bacterium that also mutated, that could no longer self-replicate, but in a different way (call it female), but in such a way that if it met up with the male bacterium, and exchanged part of itself (in a specific way), could produce another male or female. And all that happened before either one of them died. And somehow that mutation became more advantageous for survival than being able to self-replicate. Now THAT'S a leap of faith...
RocketJo86 2 aylar önce
This is really interesting, because I always imagined evolution as something that just happens. It can be accelerated by events and co-evolution, but it will happen all the time regardless, just by chance. But there seem to be a lot of people put there who can't or won't understand that more or less mathematical part of evolution. I had a discussion in a reddit grou about closed natural ecospheres and that there are some out there which lasted for several decades as of now. And one user wondered if evolution in a closed jar, just getting light as an energy source from the outside will be possible. And for some reason there where two diffrent train of thoughts present within the commentors. One that was unsure, but liked to play with the idea that life in those jars would be able to evolve and adapt. And the other - for some reason bigger - group that absolutly dismissed this idea, as there would be no way of mutating (because there aren't any mutagens or competition happening). But competition doesn't mean predation and they totally forgot that mutation don't necessarily need mutagens, just chance to happen. So there would be no reason not to think that all this algae and bacteria and coepods would not evolve. Sure, they would not start a civilization. But they will adapt to that stable, limited envronment just like the E. Coli did. I guess.
john doe
john doe Aylar önce
there is competition still? in this instance, the bacteria compete against eachother in the race against time. food isn't the limiting factor. it's time and space. what do you think?
Matthew Roberts
Matthew Roberts 7 aylar önce
That was a pleasure to watch!! Thank you
Anki 3 aylar önce
If I may add my modest pow to the experiment, wouldn't be interesting to give the E.Coli bacteria some challenges to overcome? Like adding an hostile element in the solution or other type of obstacles. If the solution is a perfect environment for the bacteria to reproduce, then it has less way to keep a mutation that could prove effective against certain types of enemies or hostile environments. The way I understand this experiment, is that the Bacteria is comfortably sitting on a couch while it gets fed generation after generation. Maybe providing a challenge would made it easier to spot, or even encourage mutations! Then again, I'm nobody. Fascinating experiment nonetheless :)
Joe Beaudette
Joe Beaudette 5 aylar önce
This video is wonderful. I actually feel bad for creationists because this… this is divine beauty.
Plum Amazing
Plum Amazing Yıl önce
It sounds like the bacteria developed telepathy strong enough to get these humans to work to feed them yummy stuff for 30 years.
TheGreatMoonFrog 2 aylar önce
This was life's long term game. Evolve some bacteria that can work together and eventually create complex life. Then have those complex colonies of bacteria evolve in complexity until the colonies start working together with other colonies. Keep doing that until some colonies of bacteria are so complex they want to feed the single celled bacteria in perfectly safe utopias. Long term victory.
Fuzzy Ankles
Fuzzy Ankles Yıl önce
when you look at that TED talk about bacteria communication.... its not so far from truth. "How bacteria "talk" - Bonnie Bassler"
Rodrigo Bittar
Rodrigo Bittar Yıl önce
If that's the case, that'll be a damn risky game for bacteria. I mean all of them developing telepathy for only 1% of them actually getting any yummy stuff. The rest 99% of them went to bacterial crematory 🔥.
Sakata Gintoki
Sakata Gintoki Yıl önce
1.5 million years in bacteria timeline
A K Yıl önce
Kokonut Binks
Kokonut Binks 3 aylar önce
We went over this experiment in our college Evolution course a few weeks ago.
Parker Imrie
Parker Imrie 7 aylar önce
Awesome video on evolution. Profound learning point that it continues in the absence of changing environmental pressure. But what the heck with the bogus sponsor demo at the end? If the clearly implicit message is “paper towels clean better than a re-usable wipe”, why did you only test the reusable wipe? I was veritably shocked, Veritasium.
superGMoney 3 aylar önce
I would check out updates on this daily!! Have they started to eat through the plastic yet? Hold on I have a knock at the door - It's the bacteria!!! Seriously tho this experiment needs it's own channel! ❤ G
Arineey 26 gün önce
One of my favorite videos he’s made
Why Private Billions Are Flowing Into Fusion
Bloomberg Quicktake: Originals
görünümler 1 Mn
How to Slow Aging (and even reverse it)
görünümler 6 Mn
Spider-Man Parkour in real life #shorts
German Spidey
görünümler 2,7 Mn
Duy Beni 6. Bölüm - Ben Sana Aşık Oldum...
The Discovery That Transformed Pi
görünümler 10 Mn
The Most Powerful Computers You've Never Heard Of
The 4 things it takes to be an expert
görünümler 4 Mn
Can We Throw Satellites to Space? - SpinLaunch
Real Engineering
görünümler 1 Mn
The Simple Secret of Runway Digits
CGP Grey
görünümler 2 Mn
Turbulent Flow is MORE Awesome Than Laminar Flow
A Physics Prof Bet Me $10,000 I'm Wrong
görünümler 12 Mn
Who made these circles in the Sahara?
Spider-Man Parkour in real life #shorts
German Spidey
görünümler 2,7 Mn